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Repeated noncontingent cocaine injections, which lead to behavioral sensitization, increase AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission in the rodent nucleus accumbens (NAc) in a withdrawal-dependent manner. On withdrawal days (WD) 10-21, this is attributable to upregulation of GluA1A2-containing AMPARs. However, synaptic incorporation of(More)
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) surface expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is enhanced after withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure. However, it is unclear whether this contributes to the expression of locomotor sensitization and whether similar changes can be observed in other striatal regions. In this study(More)
We characterized the distribution of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits and the transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) γ-2 and γ-4 in adult rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) using a method that separates plasma membranes into synaptic membrane-enriched and extrasynaptic membrane-enriched fractions. We also measured GluA1 phosphorylated at serine 845(More)
—The natural trajectory tracking problem is studied for generic quantum states represented by density operators. A control design based on the Hilbert-Schmidt distance as a Lyapunov function is considered. The control dynamics is redefined on an extended space where the LaSalle invariance principle can be correctly applied even for non-stationary target(More)
—A Lyapunov-based control design for natural trajectory-tracking problems is analyzed for quantum states where the analysis in the generic case is not applicable. Using dynamical systems tools we show almost global asymptotic stability for stationary target states subject to certain conditions on the Hamiltonians, and discuss effectiveness of the design(More)
The methyl-DNA binding protein MeCP2 is emerging as an important regulator of drug reinforcement processes. Psychostimulants induce phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421; however, the functional significance of this posttranslational modification for addictive-like behaviors was unknown. Here we show that MeCP2 Ser421Ala knock-in mice display both a reduced(More)
Two velogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) obtained from outbreaks in domestic ducks in China were characterized in this study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains clustered with the class II viruses, with one phylogenetically close to the genotype VII NDVs and the other closer to genotype IX. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has been implicated in the progression of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA); however, the molecular mechanisms of action of IL-1β in GA are poorly characterized. P38 and JNK are the major MAPK family members that regulate IL-1β signaling pathways. Here, we investigated the role of both p38 and JNK in IL-1β-induced GA cell migration,(More)