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At nondepressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, serotonin (5-HT) facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase A pathway. In contrast, at depressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, 5-HT facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. It is known that only two phorbol ester-activated PKC(More)
Inspired by the localization, on 15q21.2 of the CYP19A1 gene in the linkage region of speech and language disorders, and a rare translocation in a dyslexic individual that was brought to our attention, we conducted a series of studies on the properties of CYP19A1 as a candidate gene for dyslexia and related conditions. The aromatase enzyme is a member of(More)
Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia(More)
In Aplysia, serotonin mediates behavioral sensitization by increasing the strength of the synapse between sensory and motor neurons, a process known as facilitation. The retention of long-term facilitation is blocked by rapamycin, an inhibitor of a specific translational pathway. One possible rapamycin-sensitive target is the increased translation of(More)
Long-term facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia is a leading model for elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning. LTF requires translational control downstream of target of rapamycin complex 1. Our lab has previously shown that treatment with the facilitating neurotransmitter, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), causes a target of(More)
In brain, mRNAs are transported from the cell body to the processes, allowing for local protein translation at sites distant from the nucleus. Using subcellular fractionation, we isolated a fraction from rat embryonic day 18 brains enriched for structures that resemble amorphous collections of ribosomes. This fraction was enriched for the mRNA encoding(More)
In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR) beta regulates cholesterol levels in the brain and is essential for maintenance of motor neurons in the spinal cord and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Here, we have examined the expression pattern of LXRbeta protein in the cerebral cortex and looked for defects in cortical development in LXRbeta knockout (LXRbeta(-/-))(More)
Our previous studies with estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) mice demonstrated that ERbeta is necessary for embryonic development of the brain as early as embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) and is involved in neuronal migration. Such early effects of ER were unexpected because estradiol synthesis and action in the brain occur at E18.5. In the present(More)
The versatility of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has recently rekindled interests in cell replacement strategies aimed at neurodegenerative diseases. We observed the survival, migration, differentiation and functional recovery of NPCs transplanted into the hippocampus of aggregated beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide(More)