Xiaotang Fan

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At nondepressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, serotonin (5-HT) facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase A pathway. In contrast, at depressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, 5-HT facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. It is known that only two phorbol ester-activated PKC(More)
Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia(More)
Estrogen acting through two estrogen receptors (ERs), ERalpha and ERbeta, regulates multiple functions in the central nervous system. Studies in rodent brains have revealed that ERalpha is the predominant ER in the hypothalamus and controls reproduction. ERbeta influences on non-reproductive processes and appears to be the main ER subtype expressed in the(More)
In brain, mRNAs are transported from the cell body to the processes, allowing for local protein translation at sites distant from the nucleus. Using subcellular fractionation, we isolated a fraction from rat embryonic day 18 brains enriched for structures that resemble amorphous collections of ribosomes. This fraction was enriched for the mRNA encoding(More)
In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and(More)
Besides the cognitive impairment and degeneration in the brain, vision dysfunction and retina damage are always prevalent in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The uncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, memantine (MEM), has been proven to improve the cognition of patients with AD. However, limited information exists regarding(More)
In Aplysia californica, the serotonin-mediated translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) Apl II to neuronal membranes is important for synaptic plasticity. The orthologue of PKC Apl II, PKCepsilon, has been reported to require phosphatidic acid (PA) in conjunction with diacylglycerol (DAG) for translocation. We find that PKC Apl II can be synergistically(More)
Liver X receptor (LXR) beta regulates cholesterol levels in the brain and is essential for maintenance of motor neurons in the spinal cord and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Here, we have examined the expression pattern of LXRbeta protein in the cerebral cortex and looked for defects in cortical development in LXRbeta knockout (LXRbeta(-/-))(More)
Our previous studies with estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) mice demonstrated that ERbeta is necessary for embryonic development of the brain as early as embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) and is involved in neuronal migration. Such early effects of ER were unexpected because estradiol synthesis and action in the brain occur at E18.5. In the present(More)
Administration of beta-sitosterol (42 mg/kg per day) for 3 weeks to 8-month-old male LXRbeta-/- mice resulted in the death of motor neurons in the lumbar region of the spinal cord and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In mice at 5 months of age, beta-sitosterol had no observed toxicity but at 16 months of(More)