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Many plants synthesize antimicrobial secondary metabolites as part of their normal program of growth and development, often sequestering them in tissues where they may protect against microbial attack. These include glycosylated triterpenoids (saponins), natural products that are exploited by man for a variety of purposes including use as drugs(More)
The evolution of the ability to synthesize specialized metabolites is likely to have been key for survival and diversification of different plant species. Oats (Avena spp.) produce antimicrobial triterpenoids (avenacins) that protect against disease. The oat beta-amyrin synthase gene AsbAS1, which encodes the first committed enzyme in the avenacin(More)
Seed vigor is an index of seed quality that is used to describe the rapid and uniform germination and the establishment of strong seedlings in any environmental conditions. Strong seed vigor in low-temperature germination conditions is particularly important in direct-sowing rice production systems. However, seed vigor has not been selected as an important(More)
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were isolated from pearl millet bacterial artificial clones (BACs) without any subcloning steps. SSR sequences were targeted using 3' end-anchored SSR primers. Flanking sequences were isolated by suppression PCR. In this pilot study, 25 SSR markers have been developed from 40 BAC pools, comprising a total of 384 clones. This(More)
CYP51 sterol demethylases are the only cytochrome P450 enzymes with a conserved function across the animal, fungal, and plant kingdoms (in the synthesis of essential sterols). These highly conserved enzymes, which are important targets for cholesterol-lowering drugs, antifungal agents, and herbicides, are regarded as the most ancient member cytochrome P450(More)
Using AFLP markers, a linkage map was constructed based on a recombinant inbred population of barley derived from a cross between a leaf rust susceptible line, L94, and a partially resistant line, 116-5. The constructed map showed a similar marker distribution pattern as the L94 × Vada map. However, it contained more large gaps, and for some chromosome(More)
The medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza produces various tanshinone diterpenoids that have pharmacological activities such as vasorelaxation against ischemia reperfusion injury and antiarrhythmic effects. Their biosynthesis is initiated from the general diterpenoid precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate by sequential reactions catalyzed by copalyl(More)
Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and(More)
Operon-like gene clusters are an emerging phenomenon in the field of plant natural products. The genes encoding some of the best-characterized plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways are scattered across plant genomes. However, an increasing number of gene clusters encoding the synthesis of diverse natural products have recently been reported in(More)
Whole genome duplication (WGD) occurs widely in angiosperm evolution. It raises the intriguing question of how interacting networks of genes cope with this dramatic evolutionary event. In study of the Arabidopsis metabolic network, we assigned each enzyme (node) with topological centralities (in-degree, out-degree and between-ness) to measure quantitatively(More)