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Abscisic acid (ABA) was discovered independently by several groups in the early 1960s. Originally believed to be involved in the abscission of fruit and dormancy of woody plants, the role of ABA in these processes is still not clear. ABA is, however, necessary for seed development, adaptation to several abi-otic stresses, and sugar sensing. The regulation(More)
Enzymes that are able to oxidatively cleave carotenoids at specific positions have been identified in animals and plants. The first such enzyme to be identified was a nine-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenase from maize, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of abscisic acid biosynthesis. Similar enzymes are necessary for the synthesis of vitamin A in animals(More)
Carotenoid β-hydroxylases attach hydroxyl groups to the β-ionone rings (β-rings) of carotenoid substrates, resulting in modified structures and functions of carotenoid molecules. We cloned and characterized two genes (each with three homeologs), HYD1 and HYD2, which encode β-hydroxylases in wheat. The results from bioinformatic and nested degenerate PCR(More)
β-carotene, the most active provitamin A molecule produced by plants, plays important roles in human nutrition and health. β-carotene does not usually accumulate in the endosperm (i.e. flour) of mature wheat grains, which is a major food source of calories for humans. Therefore, enriching β-carotene accumulation in wheat grain endosperm will enable a(More)
Hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) play important roles in plant herbivore deterrence and promotion of human health. A critical step in HT production is the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-glucogallin, ester-linked gallic acid and glucose) by a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) activity. We cloned and biochemically characterized four candidate UGTs from(More)
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