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One of the most striking features of hemi-gap-junctional channels is that they are dramatically modulated by extracellular divalent cations. In this study, we characterized the effects of external divalent cations and voltage on macroscopic human connexin46 (hCx46) hemi-gap-junctional currents using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Increasing(More)
Neuronal pentraxins (NPs) define a family of proteins that are homologous to C-reactive and acute-phase proteins in the immune system and have been hypothesized to be involved in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. To investigate the role of NPs in vivo, we generated mice that lack one, two, or all three NPs. NP1/2 knock-out mice exhibited defects in(More)
Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe(More)
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school) in Shanghai. More than 98% of(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been shown to be important in the evolution of stroke-associated cerebral edema. However, the role of AQP4 in stroke-associated cerebral edema as it pertains to sex has not been previously studied. The perivascular pool of AQP4 is important in the influx and efflux of water during focal cerebral ischemia. We used mice with targeted(More)
BACKGROUND Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the evolution of ischemia-evoked cerebral edema. Experimental studies have also demonstrated anti-edema effects of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) antagonists. In a well-characterized murine model of ischemic stroke, we tested the hypotheses that treatment with selective AVP V(1) but not V(2) receptor(More)
Previous studies have shown that gap junctional channels formed from the lens connexins Cx50 (or its chicken orthologue, Cx45.6) and Cx43 exhibit marked differences in transjunctional voltage gating and unitary conductance. In the present study, we used the negatively charged dye, Lucifer Yellow (LY), to examine and compare quantitative differences in dye(More)
Cx46 and Cx50 are coexpressed in lens fiber cells where they form fiber-fiber gap junctions. Recent studies have shown that both proteins play a critical role in maintaining lens transparency. Although both Cx46 and Cx50 (or its chicken ortholog, Cx45.6) show a high degree of sequence homology, they exhibit marked differences in gap junctional channel(More)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent birth defect, affecting nearly 1% of live births; the incidence of CHD is up to tenfold higher in human fetuses. A genetic contribution is strongly suggested by the association of CHD with chromosome abnormalities and high recurrence risk. Here we report findings from a recessive forward genetic screen in(More)
Circadian rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior originate from cell-autonomous circadian clocks located in many organs and structures throughout the body and that share a common molecular mechanism based on the clock genes and their protein products. In the mammalian neural retina, despite evidence supporting the presence of several circadian(More)