Xiaoqian Xiao

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Contemporary models of episodic memory posit that remembering involves the reenactment of encoding processes. Although encoding-retrieval similarity has been consistently reported and linked to memory success, the nature of neural pattern reinstatement is poorly understood. Using high-resolution fMRI on human subjects, our results obtained clear evidence(More)
It has been consistently shown that words representing living things are better remembered than words representing nonliving things, yet the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. The present study used both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses to examine the hypotheses that living words are better remembered(More)
Although behavioral studies have consistently reported the spacing effect in learning, its cognitive and neural mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. According to the storage/retrieval strength framework proposed by Bjork (1999; Bjork & Bjork, 1992), which was built on the study-phase retrieval hypothesis and the deficient processing hypothesis, the(More)
Mental and neural representations of words are at the core of understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of reading. Despite extensive studies, the nature of visual word representation remains highly controversial due to methodological limitations. In particular, it is unclear whether the fusiform cortex contains only abstract orthographic(More)
Emerging studies have emphasized the importance of the fidelity of cortical representation in forming enduring episodic memory. No study, however, has examined whether there are age-related reductions in representation fidelity that can explain memory declines in normal aging. Using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we found that older(More)
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