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4-1BB, a member of the TNFR superfamily, is a costimulatory receptor primarily expressed on activated T cells. It has been shown that the administration of agonistic anti-4-1BB Abs enhances tumor immunity and allogenic immune responses. Paradoxically, we found that the administration of an agonistic anti-4-1BB mAb (2A) dramatically reduced the incidence and(More)
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) frequently presents as a multifocal process. To study the importance of separating independent primary (IP) from intrathyroid metastatic (ITM) PTC, we examined 19 molecular markers on 42 separate tumors from 18 multifocal PTC cases. In 12 of 18 (66.7%) cases, including 6 of 12 (50%) papillary microcarcinoma cases, the same(More)
Mucinous nonneoplastic cyst of the pancreas is a newly described and rare cystic lesion with unknown histogenesis. It is defined as a cystic lesion lined with mucinous epithelium, supported by hypocellular stroma and not communicating with the pancreatic ducts. It is very challenging to differentiate this lesion from other cystic mucinous neoplasms of the(More)
OBJECTIVES Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytomorphology of mucinous nonneoplastic cyst (MNNC) of the pancreas has not been described. METHODS Nineteen of 24 patients with surgically diagnosed MNNCs had presurgery endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-FNA biopsy. The FNA cytomorphology was retrospectively evaluated. Cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and amylase(More)
BACKGROUND Esophageal brushing cytology (EBC) and gastroesophageal biopsy (GEB) are complementary procedures for the evaluation of gastroesophageal lesions that help guide surveillance and treatment. METHODS The authors investigated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 17 microsatellite repeat markers near tumor suppressor genes in gastroesophageal lesions on(More)
Histomorphologic features and routine endocrine immunohistochemical (IHC) markers do not differentiate neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in relation to their location, making it difficult to establish the site of origin of a metastatic neoplasm. Site-specific markers would be useful, particularly when examining small biopsies. CDX-2 and thyroid transcription(More)
Differentiating malignant mesothelioma (MM) from pulmonary carcinoma in pleural fluid cytology can be challenging. Recent studies have suggested that D2-40, a novel lymphatic marker, may be a useful marker for mesothelial differentiation in surgical specimens. However, there are no available data regarding its utility in effusion cytology specimens. We(More)
Lymphotoxin (LT) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are important in immune system development and function. LT consists of soluble LT-alpha(3), which binds to TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and membrane LT-alpha(1)beta(2), which binds to LT-beta-R. We investigated the role of LT and TNF in disease induced by Daniel's (DA) strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis(More)
We investigated the role of the immune system in protecting against virus-induced demyelination by generating lines of transgenic B10 (H-2(b)) congenic mice expressing three independent contiguous coding regions of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) under the control of a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) promoter. TMEV(More)
Histologic criteria have a limited role in determining whether the synchronous bilateral breast carcinomas represent two primaries or a metastasis to the contralateral breast. We studied the molecular analysis of synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma and whether they are originating from a single or different clone. We examined 17 patients with breast(More)