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The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. Here, we show that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for all of the demethylation in the central(More)
INTRODUCTION The economic recession which began in 2008 has resulted in a substantial increase in unemployment across many countries, including the United Kingdom. Strong association between unemployment and poor health status among individuals is widely recognised. We investigated whether the prevalence of poor health at a population level increased(More)
OBJECTIVE Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are best positioned for success if participants live in supportive neighborhood environments. Deprived neighborhoods increase T2DM risk. Parks and other "green spaces" promote active lifestyles and therefore may reduce T2DM risk. We investigated association between neighborhood green(More)
OBJECTIVE While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. METHOD Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate(More)
BACKGROUND An inequitable distribution of parks and other 'green spaces' could exacerbate health inequalities if people on lower incomes, who are already at greater risk of preventable diseases, have poorer access. METHODS The availability of green space within 1 kilometre of a Statistical Area 1 (SA1) was linked to data from the 2011 Australian census(More)
The development of plant lateral organs is interesting because, although many of the same genes seem to be involved in the early growth of primordia, completely different gene combinations are required for the complete development of organs such as leaves and stamens. Thus, the genes common to the development of most organs, which generally form and(More)
The four microsporangia of the flowering plant anther develop from archesporial cells in the L2 of the primordium. Within each microsporangium, developing microsporocytes are surrounded by concentric monolayers of tapetal, middle layer and endothecial cells. How this intricate array of tissues, each containing relatively few cells, is established in an(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the geographic variation in diabetes prevalence and detection in China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Self-report and biomedical data were collected from 98,058 adults aged ≥18 years (90.5% response) from 162 areas spanning mainland China. Diabetes status was assessed using American Diabetes Association criteria. Among those with(More)
We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised(More)
Equivocal findings on crime as a deterrent for physical activity may be due to effects of geographic scale on exposure measurement. To investigate this hypothesis, physical activity was measured in 203,883 Australians and linked to standardised crime counts within small ('Census Collection Districts'; approx. 330 residents) and larger areas ('Statistical(More)