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CNS bacterial infections are prevalent in neonates, the immune-compromised and elderly. During peripheral infections, macrophages employ multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to respond to pathogens, but less is known about brain microglia. We assessed microglial expression of PRRs, compared responses to whole E. coli and LPS, and tested the(More)
There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA(More)
Background—Stromal cell– derived factor-1␣ (SDF-1␣) binding to its cognate receptor, CXCR4, regulates a variety of cellular functions such as stem cell homing, trafficking, and differentiation. However, the role of the SDF-1␣–CXCR4 axis in modulating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown. Methods and Results—In mice subjected to ischemic(More)
Many CNS disorders involve an inflammatory response that is orchestrated by cells of the innate immune system: macrophages, neutrophils, and microglia (the endogenous CNS immune cell). Hence, there is considerable interest in anti-inflammatory strategies that target these cells. Microglia express Kv1.3 (KCNA3) channels, which we showed previously are(More)
Although carbon monoxide (CO) has traditionally been viewed as a toxic gas, increasing evidence suggests that it plays an important homeostatic and cytoprotective role. Its therapeutic use, however, is limited by the side effects associated with CO inhalation. Recently, transition metal carbonyls have been shown to be a safe and effective means of(More)
Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has been shown to alleviate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI), the number of exogenous CSCs remaining in the recipient heart following transplantation and their mechanism of action remain unclear. We have previously developed a highly sensitive and accurate(More)
Urinary tract infections primarily caused by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) remain a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries. An important virulence determinant in uropathogenesis is biofilm formation which requires expression of fimbriae, flagella, and other surface components such as(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacologic studies with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors suggest that the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC) is mediated by COX-2. However, nonspecific effects of COX-2 inhibitors cannot be ruled out, and the selectivity of these inhibitors for COX-2 vs. COX-1 is only relative. Furthermore, the specific prostaglandin (PG) receptors(More)
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a member of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, cause ∼80% of community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in humans. UPEC initiates its colonization in epithelial cells lining the urinary tract with a complicated life cycle, replicating and persisting in intracellular and extracellular niches. Consequently, UPEC(More)
The regenerative potential of c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) is severely limited by the poor survival of cells after transplantation in the infarcted heart. We have previously demonstrated that preconditioning human CSCs (hCSCs) with the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), has significant cytoprotective effects in vitro. Here, we(More)