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CNS bacterial infections are prevalent in neonates, the immune-compromised and elderly. During peripheral infections, macrophages employ multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to respond to pathogens, but less is known about brain microglia. We assessed microglial expression of PRRs, compared responses to whole E. coli and LPS, and tested the(More)
There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA(More)
Background—Stromal cell– derived factor-1␣ (SDF-1␣) binding to its cognate receptor, CXCR4, regulates a variety of cellular functions such as stem cell homing, trafficking, and differentiation. However, the role of the SDF-1␣–CXCR4 axis in modulating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown. Methods and Results—In mice subjected to ischemic(More)
Many CNS disorders involve an inflammatory response that is orchestrated by cells of the innate immune system: macrophages, neutrophils, and microglia (the endogenous CNS immune cell). Hence, there is considerable interest in anti-inflammatory strategies that target these cells. Microglia express Kv1.3 (KCNA3) channels, which we showed previously are(More)
Brain expression of the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), a collection of membrane-associated ATP-dependent efflux transporters, is poorly understood. Although several studies have examined the expression of these proteins within the brain barriers (i.e., the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus), little information is available with respect to brain(More)
Although carbon monoxide (CO) has traditionally been viewed as a toxic gas, increasing evidence suggests that it plays an important homeostatic and cytoprotective role. Its therapeutic use, however, is limited by the side effects associated with CO inhalation. Recently, transition metal carbonyls have been shown to be a safe and effective means of(More)
Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has been shown to alleviate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI), the number of exogenous CSCs remaining in the recipient heart following transplantation and their mechanism of action remain unclear. We have previously developed a highly sensitive and accurate(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacologic studies with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors suggest that the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC) is mediated by COX-2. However, nonspecific effects of COX-2 inhibitors cannot be ruled out, and the selectivity of these inhibitors for COX-2 vs. COX-1 is only relative. Furthermore, the specific prostaglandin (PG) receptors(More)
Urinary tract infections primarily caused by uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) remain a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries. An important virulence determinant in uropathogenesis is biofilm formation which requires expression of fimbriae, flagella, and other surface components such as(More)
IgE-mediated allergic inflammation occurs when allergens cross-link IgE on the surface of immune cells, thereby triggering the release of inflammatory mediators as well as enhancing Ag presentations. IgE is frequently present in airway secretions, and its level can be enhanced in human patients with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. However, it(More)