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BACKGROUND Integrins are heterodimeric (alphabeta) transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix (ECM) ligands. Through interactions with molecular partners at cell junctions, they provide a connection between the ECM and the cytoskeleton and regulate many aspects of cell behavior. A number of integrin-associated molecules have been identified; however,(More)
CNS bacterial infections are prevalent in neonates, the immune-compromised and elderly. During peripheral infections, macrophages employ multiple pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to respond to pathogens, but less is known about brain microglia. We assessed microglial expression of PRRs, compared responses to whole E. coli and LPS, and tested the(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether automatic and manual measurements of hippocampal volume differences on MRI between normal aging, cognitive impairment (CI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) yield similar results. MATERIALS AND METHODS Reliability was determined for an automatic and a manual method on nine volunteers (22-83 years old) who underwent MRI twice in 1(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept injections (IAI; also called VEGF Trap-Eye) for patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS This multicenter study randomized 189 patients (1 eye/patient) with macular edema secondary to CRVO to receive 6 monthly injections of(More)
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant cell wall glycoproteins that can inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). The PGIPs directly reduce the aggressive potential of PGs. Here, we isolated and functionally characterized three members of the pepper (Capsicum annuum) PGIP gene family. Each was up-regulated at a different time following(More)
From mid-July to the end of August 2005, a total of 215 cases of human Streptococcus suis infections, 66 of which were laboratory confirmed, were reported in Sichuan, China. All infections occurred in backyard farmers who were directly exposed to infection during the slaughtering process of pigs that had died of unknown causes or been killed for food(More)
BACKGROUND Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) binding to its cognate receptor, CXCR4, regulates a variety of cellular functions such as stem cell homing, trafficking, and differentiation. However, the role of the SDF-1alpha-CXCR4 axis in modulating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS In mice subjected to(More)
There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Although inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to impart powerful protection against myocardial infarction, the mechanism for this salubrious action remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS Adenovirus-mediated iNOS gene transfer in mice resulted 48 to 72 hours later in increased expression not only of iNOS protein but also of heme(More)
It has been proposed that constitutive expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the naive (unstressed) state and that eNOS plays a critical role in the early phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC). We addressed these issues using both a genetic approach (i.e., eNOS null [eNOS(-/-)]) mice and a(More)