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Centromeres play a critical role in chromosome inheritance but are among the most difficult genomic components to analyze in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a highly detailed molecular structure of a functional centromere in a multicellular organism. The centromere of the Drosophila minichromosome Dp1187 is contained within a 420 kb region of(More)
Centromeres are the site for kinetochore formation and spindle attachment and are embedded in heterochromatin in most eukaryotes. The repeat-rich nature of heterochromatin has hindered obtaining a detailed understanding of the composition and organization of heterochromatic and centromeric DNA sequences. Here, we report the results of extensive sequence(More)
Estrogen receptor-alpha 36 (ER-α36) is a variant of ER-α that has been found to be expressed in conventional ER (ER-α66)-negative breast cancer cell lines and human breast cancer samples. In this study, we found that, using immunohistochemical study, ER-α36 expression was significantly higher in ER-negative tumors than in ER-positive tumors although the(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects cells in latent or lytic forms, but the role of lytic infection in EBV-induced lymphomas is unclear. Here, we have used a new humanized mouse model, in which both human fetal CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells and thymus/liver tissue are transplanted, to compare EBV pathogenesis and lymphoma formation following infection with(More)
Horizontal cells send inhibitory feedback to photoreceptors, helping form antagonistic receptive fields in the retina, but the neurotransmitter and the mechanisms underlying this signalling are not known. Since the proteins responsible for conventional Ca(2+)-dependent release of GABAergic synaptic vesicles are present in mammalian horizontal cells, we(More)
EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain malignancies. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) mediates EBV genome replication, partition, and transcription, and is essential for persistence of the viral genome in host cells. Here we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibitors decrease EBNA1 expression and translation, and that this effect requires(More)
AIMS Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare variant of ductal carcinoma of the breast and is characterized by high metastatic potential and an aggressive clinical course. This tumour is hence ideal for studying the mechanism underlying tumour biological behaviour, especially metastasis. Cell adhesion molecules, such as CD44 and E-cadherin(More)
We have shown that intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) newborn rats exhibit hyperphagia, reduced satiety, and adult obesity. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a principal metabolic regulator that specifically regulates appetite in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). In response to fasting, upregulated AMPK(More)
Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) (family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) is a positive-sense RNA virus containing a 4054-base genome. Previous results indicated that insertion of Hairpin 4 (H4) into a TCV-associated satellite RNA enhanced replication 6-fold in vivo (Nagy, P., Pogany, J., Simon, A. E., 1999. EMBO J. 18:5653-5665). A detailed structural and(More)
cis-acting sequences and structural elements in untranslated regions of viral genomes allow viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases to correctly initiate and transcribe asymmetric levels of plus and minus strands during replication of plus-sense RNA viruses. Such elements include promoters, enhancers, and transcriptional repressors that may require interactions(More)