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The mechanisms of axonal and neuronal degeneration causing visual and neurologic disability in multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. Here we explored the contribution of mitochondria to neurodegeneration in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis. Oxidative injury to the murine mitochondrion preceded the(More)
PURPOSE To produce a mouse model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. METHODS A mutant ND4 subunit made compatible with the universal genetic code and containing an arginine-to-histidine substitution at residue 340, or a synthetic normal human ND4 gene was delivered to the mouse visual system. The expression and effects of the mutant ND4 gene on the(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficiency and safety of AAV-mediated gene delivery of a normal human ND4 complex I subunit in the mouse visual system. METHODS A nuclear encoded human ND4 subunit fused to the ATPc mitochondrial targeting sequence and FLAG epitope were packaged in AAV2 capsids that were injected into the right eyes of mice. AAV-GFP was injected(More)
β-Secretase (BACE1) is a major drug target for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that BACE1(-/-) mice develop significant retinal pathology including retinal thinning, apoptosis, reduced retinal vascular density and an increase in the age pigment, lipofuscin. BACE1 expression is highest in the neural retina while BACE2 was greatest in the(More)
Increased vascular permeability is an inciting event in many vascular complications including diabetic retinopathy. We have previously reported that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis through a novel γ-secretase-dependent pathway. In this study, we asked whether(More)
The P2X7 receptor regulates cell growth through mediation of apoptosis. P2X7 levels are lower in cancer epithelial cells than in normal cells, and previous studies showed that expression of P2X7 was regulated post-transcriptionally. The objective of the study was to understand regulation of P2X7 mRNA stability. Overexpression of a reporter containing the(More)
A G to A transition at nucleotide 11778 in the ND4 subunit gene of complex I was the first point mutation in the mitochondrial genome linked to a human disease. It causes Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, a disorder with oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. To overcome this defect, we made a synthetic ND4 subunit compatible with the "universal" genetic(More)
Optic nerve degeneration is a feature common to diseases with mutations in genes that encode complex I of the respiratory chain. Vulnerability of this central nervous system tract is a mystery, because of the paucity of animal models used to investigate effects of the mutated DNA in tissues rather than isolated in cultured cells. Using a ribozyme designed(More)
Autophagic dysregulation has been suggested in a broad range of neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To test whether the autophagy pathway plays a critical role to protect retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells against oxidative stress, we exposed ARPE-19 and primary cultured human RPE cells to both acute (3 and 24(More)
PURPOSE Axonal loss is thought to contribute to the persistence of visual loss in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms of injury are poorly understood. The authors investigated the contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the effects of modulating mitochondrial antioxidant gene expression in the optic nerves of mice induced(More)