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The mechanisms of axonal and neuronal degeneration causing visual and neurologic disability in multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. Here we explored the contribution of mitochondria to neurodegeneration in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis. Oxidative injury to the murine mitochondrion preceded the(More)
BACKGROUND Adefovir dipivoxil is a nucleotide prodrug approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. During clinical trials, ADV-associated mutations were observed in 0, 3, 11, 18 and 29% of patients after 48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 weeks of therapy, respectively. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase mutations associated with virological breakthrough to ADV(More)
In order to assess the natural variation in susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors (PIs) among untreated HCV patient samples, the susceptibilities of 39 baseline clinical isolates were determined using a transient-replication assay on a panel of HCV PIs, including two α-ketoamides (VX-950 and SCH-503034) and three macrocyclic(More)
A G to A transition at nucleotide 11778 in the ND4 subunit gene of complex I was the first point mutation in the mitochondrial genome linked to a human disease. It causes Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, a disorder with oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. To overcome this defect, we made a synthetic ND4 subunit compatible with the "universal" genetic(More)
PURPOSE To produce a mouse model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy. METHODS A mutant ND4 subunit made compatible with the universal genetic code and containing an arginine-to-histidine substitution at residue 340, or a synthetic normal human ND4 gene was delivered to the mouse visual system. The expression and effects of the mutant ND4 gene on the(More)
PURPOSE Axonal loss is thought to contribute to the persistence of visual loss in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms of injury are poorly understood. The authors investigated the contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress and the effects of modulating mitochondrial antioxidant gene expression in the optic nerves of mice induced(More)
Several next-generation nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are currently in clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. However, the efficacy of newer agents against lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) has not been fully explored. To investigate this in vitro, we generated novel stable cell lines expressing HBV encoding the four(More)
β-Secretase (BACE1) is a major drug target for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that BACE1(-/-) mice develop significant retinal pathology including retinal thinning, apoptosis, reduced retinal vascular density and an increase in the age pigment, lipofuscin. BACE1 expression is highest in the neural retina while BACE2 was greatest in the(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficiency and safety of AAV-mediated gene delivery of a normal human ND4 complex I subunit in the mouse visual system. METHODS A nuclear encoded human ND4 subunit fused to the ATPc mitochondrial targeting sequence and FLAG epitope were packaged in AAV2 capsids that were injected into the right eyes of mice. AAV-GFP was injected(More)
PURPOSE To ameliorate experimental optic neuritis by combining scavenging of superoxide by germ line increases in the extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) and hydrogen peroxide by viral-mediated gene transfer of the human catalase gene. METHODS The human catalase gene inserted into recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) was injected into the(More)