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In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb Cistanches salsa, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We confirmed that exposure to MPTP in mice leads to permanent behavioral deficits and depletion of(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanism of cell damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a dopamine analog which specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Baicalein has been(More)
DJ-1, a causative gene product of a familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD), PARK7, plays a role in anti-oxidative stress, and loss of its function is thought to result in the onset of PD. Superfluous oxidation of cysteine at amino acid 106 (C106) of DJ-1 renders DJ-1 inactive, and such oxidized DJ-1 was observed in patients with the sporadic form of PD.(More)
The dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) replicates many of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice via selective destruction of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and striatum. Although MPTP has been widely used to study downstream effects following the degeneration of dopaminergic(More)
Baicalein was a major bioactive flavonoid derived from Radix Scutellariae in Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang which was commonly used to treat chronic hepatitis and liver fibrosis in China. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic baicalein administration could prevent liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats and investigate its possible(More)
The neuroprotective effects of verbascoside, one of phenylpropanoid glucoside isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Buddleja officinalis Maxim, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 neuronal cells were investigated. Treatment of PC12 cells with MPP(+) for 48 h induced apoptotic death as determined by(More)
In this study we assessed the effect of acteoside that significantly improved cell viability and inhibited lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Furthermore acteoside prevented a neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+)-induced apoptosis in CGNs. Accordingly, our flow cytometric analysis of CGNs after acteoside treatment revealed a decrease in the(More)
BACKGROUND It has been shown that opioid dependence-related neuronal plasticity may rely not only on protein synthesis, but also on protein degradation, mainly mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of morphine on the regulation of protein degradation in the brain and to determine which(More)
Chlorotoxin (ClTx), originally isolated from scorpion venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus, is a 36-amino acid peptide and specifically binds to the brain gliomas and proliferating vascular endothelial cells. In this paper, it was first used to establish the ClTx-modified stealth liposomes (ClTx-LS) encapsulating levodopa (LD) for the targeting drug delivery(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, involving progressive loss of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons. Cardinal symptoms including tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooping, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons have already(More)