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In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb Cistanches salsa, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We confirmed that exposure to MPTP in mice leads to permanent behavioral deficits and depletion of(More)
In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of kaempferol in the mouse model of Parkinson's disease, which was induced by neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We confirmed that MPTP led to behavioral deficits, depletion of dopamine and its metabolites, reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione(More)
The dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) replicates many of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice via selective destruction of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and striatum. Although MPTP has been widely used to study downstream effects following the degeneration of dopaminergic(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) with the presence of alpha-synuclein inclusions termed Lewy bodies. The aggregation of alpha-synuclein into oligomeric species affects neuronal viability, having a causal role in the development of PD. The neuroprotective effects of(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanism of cell damage in Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a dopamine analog which specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Baicalein has been(More)
In recent studies, alterations in the activity and expression of metabolic enzymes, such as those involved in glycolysis, have been detected in morphine-dependent patients and animals. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hippocampus is an important brain region associated with morphine dependence, but the molecular events occurring in the hippocampus(More)
Protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL) has been reported to bind to DJ-1, a key protein involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), and exerts potential neuroprotective effects via DJ-1 in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of PAL against neurotoxin-induced cell and animal models of PD. In cellular models of PD, PAL(More)
Despite being viewed as a better way to enhance learning than repeated study, it has not been clear whether repeated testing is equally effective for students with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The current study examined whether test-enhanced learning would be equally beneficial to participants with varied working-memory capacity (WMC) and trait test(More)
Cannabinoid agonists impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Using mouse hippocampal slice preparations, we examined the effect of anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid, on sharp wave-ripple (SW-R) complexes, which are believed to mediate memory consolidation during slow-wave sleep or behavioral immobility. Anandamide reduced the frequency of(More)
Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and it cannot be completely cured by current medications. In this study, DJ-1 protein was administrated into medial forebrain bundle of PD model rats those had been microinjected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or MG-132. We found that DJ-1 protein could reduce apomorphine-induced(More)