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In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside extracted from the medicinal Chinese herb Cistanches salsa, against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We confirmed that exposure to MPTP in mice leads to permanent behavioral deficits and depletion of(More)
The dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) replicates many of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice via selective destruction of dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and striatum. Although MPTP has been widely used to study downstream effects following the degeneration of dopaminergic(More)
Despite being viewed as a better way to enhance learning than repeated study, it has not been clear whether repeated testing is equally effective for students with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The current study examined whether test-enhanced learning would be equally beneficial to participants with varied working-memory capacity (WMC) and trait test(More)
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been employed to create a Parkinson's disease-like model in both rodents and primates based primarily on its ability to create a striatal dopamine deficit due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. The present study was carried out to determine the possible(More)
A testing effect occurs when taking a test leads to more durable memory for tested materials, relative to restudying them during the same period of time. In the current study, we examined whether incidental and intentional restudy/testing practice modes during a practice phase would modulate the contribution of recollection-based and familiarity-based(More)
Own-race effect is the phenomenon that individuals are better able to recognize the faces of people from their own race than the faces of people from other races. Sporer (2001) suggests that other-race faces may activate a categorization response, which may divert one's attention away and in turn hurt the recognition of these faces (in-group/out-group(More)
The present study investigated the effect of individual semantic information displayed simultaneously with faces on the other-race effect. Arbitrary descriptions of the individual personalities of a set of faces were initially evaluated for consistency. Later, 83 naïve participants were allocated to three groups in which they saw faces and consistent,(More)
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