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Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage(More)
Feedback de-excitation (qE) regulates light harvesting in plants to prevent inhibition of photosynthesis when light absorption exceeds photosynthetic capacity. Although the mechanism of qE is not completely understood, it is known to require a low thylakoid lumen pH, de-epoxidized xanthophylls, and the photosystem II protein PsbS. During a short-term 4-h(More)
The biochemical, biophysical, and physiological properties of the PsbS protein were studied in relation to mutations of two symmetry-related, lumen-exposed glutamate residues, Glu-122 and Glu-226. These two glutamates are targets for protonation during lumen acidification in excess light. Mutation of PsbS did not affect xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion(More)
Photosynthetic light harvesting in excess light is regulated by a process known as feedback deexcitation. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements on thylakoid membranes show selective formation of a carotenoid radical cation upon excitation of chlorophyll under conditions of maximum, steady-state feedback deexcitation. Studies on transgenic(More)
Photosynthetic light harvesting in plants is regulated by a pH- and xanthophyll-dependent nonphotochemical quenching process (qE) that dissipates excess absorbed light energy and requires the psbS gene product. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, npq4-1, lacks qE because of a deletion of the psbS gene, yet it exhibits a semidominant phenotype. Here it is shown(More)
The PsbS protein of photosystem II functions in the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting. Along with a low thylakoid lumen pH and the presence of de-epoxidized xanthophylls, PsbS is necessary for photoprotective thermal dissipation (qE) of excess absorbed light energy in plants, measured as non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.(More)
Colorectal cancer, a commonly diagnosed cancer in the elderly, often develops slowly from benign polyps called adenoma. The gut microbiota is believed to be directly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. The identity and functional capacity of the adenoma- or carcinoma-related gut microbe(s), however, have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. Here(More)
Nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) refers to a process that regulates photosynthetic light harvesting in plants as a response to changes in incident light intensity. By dissipating excess excitation energy of chlorophyll molecules as heat, NPQ balances the input and utilization of light energy in photosynthesis and protects the plant against photooxidative(More)
To understand the mechanism for spatial variation of CH(4) emissions from marshes grown with different type of plants in a region and plots within a certain marsh grown with one type of plants, we measured CH(4) emissions from a region in which eutrophic freshwater marshes were divided into three types: Carex lasiocarpa, Carex meyeruana and Deyeuxia(More)