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We investigated the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) plus long-term low dose corticosteroids in Chinese patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) at the Center for Demyelinating Diseases, South China. We prospectively enrolled patients between June 2010 and June 2014. Annualized relapse rate (ARR), expanded(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin 17 (IL-17) plays an important role in many autoimmune diseases including neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS), which are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. A large number of non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported to increase the risk of MS. However, their effects on(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze the role of HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1 alleles in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis in Southern Han Chinese. METHODS Thirty serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab)-positive NMO patients, 53 conventional multiple sclerosis (C-MS) patients, and 93 controls (CTLs) were enrolled. The HLA-DRB1 and -DPB1(More)
BAFF (B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family) and APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) are two of the major survival factors for B cells. Many studies have shown that BAFF levels were elevated in MS patients. However, whether the levels of CSF BAFF/APRIL increased in NMO patients was still unclear. To measure the CSF BAFF and APRIL(More)
BACKGROUND IL-6 is a proinflammatory cytokine which is involved in the maintenance of the humoral response in various autoimmune disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IL-6 has shown to be increased in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The soluble form of IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which links to IL-6, can activate biological responses in cells. Whether or not sIL-6R(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are immune-mediated inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. In the acute phase of these diseases, secondary ischemia due to inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction may be an important pathological change. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a pro-inflammatory protein and a novel biomarker(More)
BACKGROUND B cells are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NMO. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), the most potent B-cell chemoattractant, is a chemokine which is critical for secondary lymphoid tissue development and for B-cell migration. Concentration of CXCL13 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is elevated in patients with(More)
The concept that the immune system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) was indisputable. However, neurodegenerative pathological features including loss of axons and neurons were also found in the lesions of these diseases. α-Synuclein is one of the most abundant proteins in pre-synaptic(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are inflammatory demyelinating diseases of human central nervous system (CNS) with complex pathogenesis. IL-21/IL-21R regulates activation, proliferation and survival of both T cells and B cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO and MS. High levels of serum IL-21 were observed in(More)
Interleukin (IL)-22 secreting CD4(+) T (Th22) cells and IL-22 are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, but their role in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear. We measured the proportion of Th22, Th17, CD4(+)IL-22(+)IL-17A(+) T cells and serum IL-22 in NMO and MS patients. The proportion of Th22 cells, Th17 cells(More)