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Argonaute (AGO) proteins are critical components of RNA silencing pathways that bind small RNAs and mediate gene silencing at their target sites. We found that Arabidopsis AGO2 is highly induced by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Further genetic analysis demonstrated that AGO2 functions in antibacterial immunity. One abundant(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in development and stress responses in most eukaryotes. We globally profiled plant miRNAs in response to infection of bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). We sequenced 13 small-RNA libraries constructed from Arabidopsis at 6 and 14 h post infection of non-pathogenic, virulent and(More)
The freshwater cnidarian Hydra was first described in 1702 and has been the object of study for 300 years. Experimental studies of Hydra between 1736 and 1744 culminated in the discovery of asexual reproduction of an animal by budding, the first description of regeneration in an animal, and successful transplantation of tissue between animals. Today, Hydra(More)
We present a micrograting-based force sensor integrated with a surface micromachined silicon-nitride probe for penetration and injection into Drosophila embryos. The probe is supported by springs of a known spring constant, and the penetration force is determined from displacement measurements using a high-resolution, miniaturized optical encoder that is(More)
Mre11 and Rad50 are the catalytic components of a highly conserved DNA repair complex that functions in many aspects of DNA metabolism involving double-strand breaks. The ATPase domains in Rad50 are related to the ABC transporter family of ATPases, previously shown to share structural similarities with adenylate kinases. Here we demonstrate that Mre11/Rad50(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which originate from precursor transcripts with stem-loop structures, are essential gene expression regulators in eukaryotes. RESULTS We report 19 miRNA precursors in Arabidopsis that can yield multiple distinct miRNA-like RNAs in addition to miRNAs and miRNA*s. These miRNA precursor-derived miRNA-like RNAs are often(More)
Many eukaryotic genomes encode cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). Sense and antisense transcripts may form double-stranded RNAs that are processed by the RNA interference machinery into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A few so-called nat-siRNAs have been reported in plants, mammals, Drosophila, and yeasts. However, many questions remain(More)
BACKGROUND In past reports, researchers have seldom attached importance to achievements in transforming digital anatomy to radiological diagnosis. However, investigators have been able to illustrate communication relationships in the retroperitoneal space by drawing potential routes in computerized tomography (CT) images or a virtual anatomical atlas. We(More)