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The glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has been hypothesized to modulate water and potassium fluxes associated with neuronal activity. In this study, we examined the seizure phenotype of AQP4 -/- mice using in vivo electrical stimulation and electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. AQP4 -/- mice were found to have dramatically prolonged(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel expressed at fluid-tissue barriers throughout the brain and plays a crucial role in cerebral water balance. To assess whether these channels influence brain extracellular space (ECS) under resting physiological conditions, we used the established real-time iontophoresis method with tetramethylammonium (TMA(+))(More)
We synthesized a water-soluble, long-wavelength K(+) sensor, TAC-Red, consisting of triazacryptand coupled to 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)xanthylium, whose fluorescence increased 14-fold at 0-50 mM K(+) with K(+)-to-Na(+) selectivity >30. We visualized K(+) waves in TAC-Red-stained brain cortex in mice during spreading depression, with velocity 4.4 +/- 0.5(More)
The regulation of water balance in the brain is crucial. A disruption in this equilibrium causes an increase in brain water content that significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, hydrocephalus, and a variety of neurological disorders. The discovery of the aquaporin (AQP) family of membrane water channels has provided(More)
IGF-II is a mitogenic peptide that has been implicated in hepatocellular oncogenesis. Since the silencing of gene expression is frequently associated with cytosine methylation at cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, we designed a methylated oligonucleotide (MON1) complementary to a region encompassing IGF2 promoter P4 in an attempt to induce DNA(More)
Aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins involved in water transport in fluid-transporting tissues. In the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed widely by glial cells, but its function is unclear. Extensive basic and clinical studies indicate that osmolarity affects seizure susceptibility, and in our previous studies we found that AQP4 -/- mice have an(More)
The mouse insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) and H19 genes are located adjacent to each other on chromosome 7q11-13 and are reciprocally imprinted. It is believed that the allelic expression of these two genes is regulated by the binding of CTCF insulators to four parent-specific DNA methylation sites in an imprinting control center (ICR) located between(More)
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that can produce marked neurological deficit. Current NMO therapies include immunosuppressants, plasma exchange and B-cell depletion. Here, we evaluated 14 potential remyelinating drugs emerging from prior small molecule screens done to identify drugs for(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel expressed in astrocyte end-feet lining the blood-brain barrier. AQP4 deletion in mice is associated with improved outcomes in global cerebral ischemia produced by transient carotid artery occlusion, and focal cerebral ischemia produced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we investigated the(More)
An orthotopic xenograft tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma was created by injection of Hep 3B cells directly into the liver parenchyma of nude mice. Tumors were localized primarily in the injected lobe of the liver, beginning from the third week after tumor cell implantation. Thereafter, tumors grew rapidly, and animals usually died from hepatocellular(More)