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Over the past 50 million years, successive clades of large carnivorous mammals diversified and then declined to extinction. In most instances, the cause of the decline remains a puzzle. Here we argue that energetic constraints and pervasive selection for larger size (Cope's rule) in carnivores lead to dietary specialization (hypercarnivory) and increased(More)
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool gaining use in studies of biological form and function. This method is particularly conducive to studies of extinct and fossilized organisms, as models can be assigned properties that approximate living tissues. In disciplines where model validation is difficult or impossible, the choice of model parameters(More)
By measuring phosphate uptake by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with the pstS1 and pstS2 genes genetically inactivated, we showed that these pstS genes encode high-affinity phosphate binding proteins. In a mouse infection model, both mutants were attenuated in virulence, suggesting that M. tuberculosis encounters limiting phosphate concentrations during(More)
To identify FDA-approved agents targeting leukemic cells, we performed a chemical screen on two human leukemic cell lines and identified the antimicrobial tigecycline. A genome-wide screen in yeast identified mitochondrial translation inhibition as the mechanism of tigecycline-mediated lethality. Tigecycline selectively killed leukemia stem and progenitor(More)
BACKGROUND Bortezomib and the other proteasome inhibitors that are currently under clinical investigation bind to the catalytic sites of proteasomes and are competitive inhibitors. We hypothesized that proteasome inhibitors that act through a noncompetitive mechanism might overcome some forms of bortezomib resistance. METHODS 5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline(More)
It has been shown that Cl-/HCO3- exchangers and Cl- channels, both of which are sensitive to stilbene derivatives, have essential roles in the mechanism of apoptosis induction. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes was prevented by a stilbene derivative, DIDS. To clarify whether Cl-/HCO3- exchangers or Cl- channels are targets of(More)
Recently identified as adiponectin (APN) paralogs, C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) share similar metabolic regulatory functions as APN. The current study determined cardiac expression of CTRPs, their potential cardioprotective function, and investigated whether and how diabetes may regulate cardiac CTRP expression. Several CTRPs are expressed in the heart(More)
Despite efforts to understand and treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there remains a need for more comprehensive therapies to prevent AML-associated relapses. To identify new therapeutic strategies for AML, we screened a library of on- and off-patent drugs and identified the antimalarial agent mefloquine as a compound that selectively kills AML cells and(More)
BACKGROUND The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of(More)