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In the past few years the topic of cooperative motion of multiple agents has attracted serious attention. Cooperative motion appears in various problems, such as formation control of multiple vehicles, fl ocking of animals, and consensus and synchronization problems of communication networks [1]–[3]. With the rapid advance of technology, cooperative control(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Mononuclear phagocytes are highly plastic cells that assume diverse phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. The phenotype-specific roles of microglia/macrophages in ischemic brain injury are poorly understood. A comprehensive characterization of microglia/macrophage polarization after ischemia may advance our knowledge(More)
In this paper, the multiagent coordination problem is studied. This problem is addressed for a class of robots for which control Lyapunov functions can be found. The main result is a suite of theorems about formation maintenance, task completion time, and formation velocity. It is also shown how to moderate the requirement that, for each individual robot,(More)
TGF-beta1 is one of the most potent endogenous immune modulators of inflammation. The molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB has been well-studied; however, the potential effects of TGF-beta1 on other proinflammatory signaling pathways is less clear. In this study, using the(More)
The traditional view of the adult brain as a static organ has changed in the past three decades, with the emergence of evidence that it remains plastic and has some regenerative capacity after injury. In the injured brain, microglia and macrophages clear cellular debris and orchestrate neuronal restorative processes. However, activation of these cells can(More)
Astrogliosis, a cellular reaction with specific structural and functional characteristics, represents a remarkably homotypic response of astrocytes to all kinds of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Astrocytes play diverse functions in the brain, both harmful and beneficial. Mounting evidence indicates that astrogliosis is an underlying component of(More)
Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that functional deficiency in regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, exacerbates brain damage after cerebral ischemia. We therefore evaluated the effect of Treg transfer in rodent models of ischemic stroke and further investigated the mechanism underlying Treg-afforded neuroprotection. METHODS We examined(More)