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Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid(More)
Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent(More)
CONTEXT Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. The relationship between PON1 genotypes and functional activity with systemic measures of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in humans has not been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of genetic and(More)
In recent studies we demonstrated that systemic levels of protein-bound nitrotyrosine (NO(2)Tyr) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a protein that catalyzes generation of nitrating oxidants, serve as independent predictors of atherosclerotic risk, burden, and incident cardiac events. We now show both that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the primary protein constituent(More)
CONTEXT Formation of nitric oxide-derived oxidants may serve as a mechanism linking inflammation to development of atherosclerosis. Nitrotyrosine, a specific marker for protein modification by nitric oxide-derived oxidants, is enriched in human atherosclerotic lesions and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) recovered from human atheroma. OBJECTIVES To determine(More)
BACKGROUND The pleiotropic actions of hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) include antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions. We recently reported that statins induce reductions in plasma protein levels of nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr), a modification generated by nitric oxide-derived oxidants. Whether alternative oxidative pathways are(More)
Observational clinical and ex vivo studies have established a strong association between atrial fibrillation and inflammation. However, whether inflammation is the cause or the consequence of atrial fibrillation and which specific inflammatory mediators may increase the atria's susceptibility to fibrillation remain elusive. Here we provide experimental and(More)
Nitrotyrosine is widely used as a marker of post-translational modification by the nitric oxide ((.)NO, nitrogen monoxide)-derived oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). However, since the discovery that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) can generate nitrotyrosine via oxidation of nitrite (NO(2)(-)), several questions have arisen. First, the(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic(More)