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This paper extends the Boltzmann Selection, a method in EDA with theoretical importance, from discrete domain to the continuous one. The difficulty of estimating the exact Boltzmann distribution in continuous state space is circumvented by adopting the multivariate Gaussian model, which is popular in continuous EDA, to approximate only the final sampling(More)
In this paper, the design of an automatic instrument for measuring the spatialdistribution of land surface emissivity is presented, which makes the direct in situmeasurement of the spatial distribution of emissivity possible. The significance of this newinstrument lies in two aspects. One is that it helps to investigate the spatial scalingbehavior of(More)
In order to make the prediction of land surface heat fluxes more robust, two improvements were made to an operational two-layer model proposed previously by Zhang. These improvements are: 1) a surface energy balance method is used to determine the theoretical boundary lines (namely 'true wet/cool edge' and 'true dry/warm edge' in the trapezoid) in the(More)
This paper deals with the adaptive variance scaling issue incontinuous Estimation of Distribution Algorithms. A phenomenon is discovered that current adaptive variance scaling method in EDA suffers from imprecise structure learning. A new type of adaptation method is proposed to overcome this defect. The method tries to measure the difference between the(More)
Suboptimal health status (SHS) is the intermediate health state between health and disease, refers to medically undiagnosed or functional somatic syndromes, and has been a major global public health challenge. However, both the etiology and mechanisms associated with SHS are still unclear. Breakfast eating behavior is a dietary pattern marker and previous(More)
Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil(More)
Here, we aimed to examine the associations between levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and inflammatory cytokines in healthy Japanese adults. A total of 95 healthy adults (61 women; age range 21-69 years) participated in our study. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for 25(OH)D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], interferon-γ (IFN-γ),(More)
AIM Low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been linked to a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. One explanation for this phenomenon is that there is an association between the serum 25(OH)D level and lipid profiles. However, studies examining this relationship are limited and have yielded inconsistent results. We thus aimed(More)
Albuminuria is characteristic of early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). The conventional treatments with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are unable to prevent the development of albuminuria in normotensive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ARB combined with a Chinese formula(More)