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Carbon (C) and water cycles of terrestrial ecosystems are two coupled ecological processes controlled partly by stomatal behavior. Water-use efficiency (WUE) reflects the coupling relationship to some extent. At stand and ecosystem levels, the variability of WUE results from the trade-off between water loss and C gain in the process of plant photosynthetic(More)
This paper extends the Boltzmann Selection, a method in EDA with theoretical importance, from discrete domain to the continuous one. The difficulty of estimating the exact Boltzmann distribution in continuous state space is circumvented by adopting the multivariate Gaussian model, which is popular in continuous EDA, to approximate only the final sampling(More)
OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional study analyzed the association of serum irisin concentrations with cardiorespiratory fitness levels and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FNDC5 gene and examined the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness levels, common SNPs in FNDC5, and glucose metabolism. MATERIALS/METHODS Cardiorespiratory(More)
In order to make the prediction of land surface heat fluxes more robust, two improvements were made to an operational two-layer model proposed previously by Zhang. These improvements are: 1) a surface energy balance method is used to determine the theoretical boundary lines (namely 'true wet/cool edge' and 'true dry/warm edge' in the trapezoid) in the(More)
The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) concentrations from shallow groundwater wells situated in 29 of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network field stations, representing typical agro- and forest ecosystems, were assessed using monitoring data collected between 2004 and 2010. Results from this assessment permit a national scale assessment of nitrate concentrations(More)
OBJECTIVE The presence of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been described throughout the digestive tract. In this study, we investigated whether ICC also exist in the gallbladder wall of CD1 mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy was used to identify the morphology and distribution of ICC in either whole-mount flat(More)
Reactions with the OH radical are expected to be the dominant removal processes for gas-phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs). The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism and kinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzofuran (TCDF) are researched using the density functional theory and canonical variational(More)
CONTEXT Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is an important metabolic regulator suggested to improve glucose metabolism and prevent dyslipidemia. An FGF21-resistant state that increases circulating FGF21 has been reported in obese patients. Although regular exercise prevents metabolic disease, the relationship of the fitness level to serum FGF21 level and(More)
For cartilage repair, ideal scaffolds should mimic natural extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibiting excellent characteristics, such as biocompatibility, suitable porosity, and good cell affinity. This study aimed to prepare a collagen/silk fibroin composite scaffold incorporated with poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microsphere that can be applied in(More)
BACKGROUND Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy (SJZT) has been widely used to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), but the results are still controversial. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of SJZT for IBS-D. METHODS The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane(More)