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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder afflicting >500,000 patients in the United States alone. This age-related progressive disorder is typified by invariant loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons (DAN), dystrophic neurites, the presence of alpha-synuclein (SYN) positive intracytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy(More)
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is complex and most likely involves numerous environmental and heritable risk factors. Recent studies establish that central and peripheral inflammation occurs in the prodromal stage of the disease and sustains disease progression. Aging, heritable risk factors, or environmental exposures may contribute to the(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were one of the major components of the immune suppressive network. STAT3 has an important role in regulating the suppressive potential of MDSCs. In this study, we found that the expression of STAT3 could be modulated by both miR-17-5p and miR-20a. The transfection of miR-17-5p or miR-20a remarkably reduces the(More)
Microglia provide immune surveillance for the brain through both the removal of cellular debris and protection against infection by microorganisms and “foreign” molecules. Upon activation, microglia display an altered morphology and increased expression of proinflammatory molecules. Increased numbers of activated microglia have been identified in a number(More)
Clinical studies to date have failed to establish therapeutic benefit of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to previous nonclinical neuroprotective reports, this study shows clinically relevant and long-lasting regeneration of the dopaminergic system in rhesus macaques lesioned with(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD) chronic inflammation occurs in the substantia nigra (SNc) concurrently with dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In models of PD, microglial activation precedes neurodegeneration in the SNc, suggesting that the underlying pathogenesis involves a complex response in the nigrostriatal pathway, and that the innate immune system plays a(More)
PURPOSE The present study aims to investigate apoptosis of U937 cells induced by hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-mediated sonodynamic therapy (SDT). MATERIALS HMME concentration was kept constant at 10 μg/mL. Tumor cells suspended in serum-free RPM1640 were exposed to ultrasound at 1.1 MHz for up to 60 seconds with an intensity of 1 W/cm(2) in the(More)
We evaluated neuropathological findings in two studies of AAV2-GDNF efficacy and safety in naive aged (>20 years) or MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine)-lesioned rhesus macaques. In the first study, a total of 17 animals received one of two doses of AAV2-GDNF into either putamen or substantia nigra (SN). To control for surgical variables,(More)
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has shown great potential in target cancer therapy, but it induced cell death modes has not been fully investigated. This study was to examine autophagic and apoptotic responses to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) mediated SDT in murine leukemia L1210 cells. After SDT, the occurrence of autophagy was identified by morphological observation(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. Evidence suggests a role for protein misfolding in disease pathogenesis. One pathologic feature observed in dopaminergic neurons is the intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. One component of Lewy bodies, the presynaptic protein, alpha-synuclein forms(More)