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An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm offers algorithmic techniques for optimization by simulating the foraging behavior of a group of ants to perform incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. Although ACO is first designed for solving discrete (combinatorial) optimization problems, the ACO procedure(More)
Research on optimization of the job shop scheduling problem (JSP) is one of the most significant and promising areas of optimization. Instead of the traditional optimization method, this paper presents an investigation into the use of an Ant Colony System (ACS) to optimize the JSP. The main characteristics of this system are positive feedback, distributed(More)
The advancement of network induces great demands on a series of applications such as the multicast routing. This paper firstly makes a brief review on the algorithms in solving routing problems. Then it proposes a novel algorithm called the distance complete ant colony system (DCACS), which is aimed at solving the multicast routing problem by utilizing the(More)
Orthogonal methods based ant colony search for solving continuous optimization problems. Abstract Research into ant colony algorithms for solving continuous optimization problems forms one of the most significant and promising areas in swarm computation. Although traditional ant algorithms are designed for combinatorial optimization, they have shown great(More)
This paper presents the comparison of performance on a simple genetic algorithm (SGA) using roulette wheel selection and tournament selection. A SGA is mainly composed of three genetic operations, which are selection, crossover and mutation. With the same crossover and mutation operation, the simulation results are studied by comparing different selection(More)
Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786(More)
Bacillus sphaericus cannot metabolize sugar since it lacks several of the enzymes necessary for glycolysis. Our results confirmed the presence of a glucokinase-encoding gene, glcK, and a phosphofructokinase-encoding gene, pfk, on the bacterial chromosome and expression of glucokinase during vegetative growth of B. sphaericus strains. However, no(More)