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An ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm offers algorithmic techniques for optimization by simulating the foraging behavior of a group of ants to perform incremental solution constructions and to realize a pheromone laying-and-following mechanism. Although ACO is first designed for solving discrete (combinatorial) optimization problems, the ACO procedure(More)
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, endospore-forming bacterium, strain A9(T), was isolated in 1996 from a soil sample collected under a peach tree in Qingnian Park in Shenyang, PR China, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene(More)
Ginsenoside bioactive compounds, namely, compound K (C-K), compound Mx (C-Mx), and ginsenoside Mc (G-Mc), were the metabolites of ginsenosides Rb 1, Rb 2, Rb 3, and Rc by intestinal microflora of humans or rats, microorganisms, and enzymes, and C-K showed beneficial effects in vitro and in vivo as an antitumoral agent. The objective of this work was to(More)
The surface layer protein encoding genes from five mosquito-pathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolates were amplified and sequenced. Negative staining of the S-layer protein extracted from the cell wall of wild-type B. sphaericus C3-41 was prepared. It showed a flat-sheet crystal lattice structure. Two genes encoding the entire and N-terminally truncated(More)
Bacillus sphaericus strain C3-41 is an aerobic, mesophilic, spore-forming bacterium that has been used with great success in mosquito control programs worldwide. Genome sequencing revealed that the complete genome of this entomopathogenic bacterium is composed of a chromosomal replicon of 4,639,821 bp and a plasmid replicon of 177,642 bp, containing 4,786(More)
Research on optimization of the job shop scheduling problem (JSP) is one of the most significant and promising areas of optimization. Instead of the traditional optimization method, this paper presents an investigation into the use of an Ant Colony System (ACS) to optimize the JSP. The main characteristics of this system are positive feedback, distributed(More)
This paper presents the comparison of performance on a simple genetic algorithm (SGA) using roulette wheel selection and tournament selection. A SGA is mainly composed of three genetic operations, which are selection, crossover and mutation. With the same crossover and mutation operation, the simulation results are studied by comparing different selection(More)
The advancement of network induces great demands on a series of applications such as the multicast routing. This paper firstly makes a brief review on the algorithms in solving routing problems. Then it proposes a novel algorithm called the distance complete ant colony system (DCACS), which is aimed at solving the multicast routing problem by utilizing the(More)
Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange(More)