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Podocyte damage and apoptosis are thought to be important if not essential in the development of glomerulosclerosis. Female estrogen receptor knockout mice develop glomerulosclerosis at 9 months of age due to excessive ovarian testosterone production and secretion. Here, we studied the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis in this mouse model to determine(More)
C-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates both the development of insulin resistance and inflammation. Podocytes of the widely used db/db mouse model of diabetic nephropathy lose their ability to respond to insulin as albuminuria develops, in comparison to control db/+ mice. Here we tested whether JNK inhibition or its gene deletion would prevent albuminuria(More)
Loss of podocytes by apoptosis characterizes the early stages of diabetic nephropathy. To examine its mechanism we studied glomeruli and podocytes isolated from db/db mice with early diabetic nephropathy and albuminuria. Phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B, a key survival protein) was found to be lower in the glomeruli of 12 week old db/db compared to(More)
Smoking is a known risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney diseases. However, its independent contribution to the development of ESRD and the underlying molecular mechanism have not been well elucidated. Although the risk for ESRD is higher in postmenopausal women according to the US Renal Data System, the number of women who smoke is on the rise(More)
Diabetic nephropathy remains one of the most important causes of end-stage renal disease. This is particularly true for women from racial/ethnic minorities. Although administration of 17beta-estradiol to diabetic animals has been shown to reduce extracellular matrix deposition in glomeruli and mesangial cells, effects on podocytes are lacking. Given that(More)
We recently showed that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) treatment ameliorated type 2 diabetic glomerulosclerosis in mice in part by protecting podocyte structure and function. Progressive podocyte damage is characterized by foot process effacement, vacuolization, detachment of podocytes from the glomerular basement membrane, and apoptosis. In addition, podocytes are(More)
Estrogen actions are largely dependent on the intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) levels. During aging the decline of estrogens or ER leads to a loss in antiinflammatory protection and an increase in oxidant stress due to changes in mitochondrial function. Estrogens/ER may also coordinate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria through ERK(More)
The observation that pulmonary inflammatory lesions and bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis spontaneously resolve in young mice, whereas remaining irreversible in aged mice suggests that impairment of pulmonary regeneration and repair is associated with aging. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may promote repair after injury, we postulated that(More)
Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS) play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous). We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE)(More)
The role that estrogens play in the aging lung is poorly understood. Remodeling of the aging lung with thickening of the alveolar walls and reduction in the number of peripheral airways is well recognized. The present study was designed to address whether estrogen deficiency would affect age-associated changes in the lungs of female C57BL/6J mice. Lungs(More)
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