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Smoking is a known risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney diseases. However, its independent contribution to the development of ESRD and the underlying molecular mechanism have not been well elucidated. Although the risk for ESRD is higher in postmenopausal women according to the US Renal Data System, the number of women who smoke is on the rise(More)
Age-related increases in oxidant stress (OS) play a role in regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the kidneys. In this study, we establish that in vivo 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement can no longer upregulate glomerular ER expression by 21 months of age in female mice (anestrous). We hypothesized that advanced glycation end product (AGE)(More)
A novel design is proposed for the OFDM system using structured LDPC codes with the transmit adaptive antennas (TxAA), which can achieve improved performance by adaptively using the feedback subcarrier frequency information at the transmit side. With the aid of the closed multiple antenna technique, much gain can be achieved in the coded OFDM system.(More)
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