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This document describes the properties and some applications of the Microsoft Web N-gram corpus. The corpus is designed to have the following characteristics. First, in contrast to static data distribution of previous corpus releases, this N-gram corpus is made publicly available as an XML Web Service so that it can be updated as deemed necessary by the(More)
Prediction-error expansion (PEE) is an important technique of reversible watermarking which can embed large payloads into digital images with low distortion. In this paper, the PEE technique is further investigated and an efficient reversible watermarking scheme is proposed, by incorporating in PEE two new strategies, namely, adaptive embedding and pixel(More)
This paper makes three significant extensions to a noisy channel speller designed for standard written text to target the challenging domain of search queries. First, the noisy channel model is subsumed by a more general ranker, which allows a variety of features to be easily incorporated. Second , a distributed infrastructure is proposed for training and(More)
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have recently produced record setting performance in language modeling and word-labeling tasks. In the word-labeling task, the RNN is used analogously to the more traditional conditional random field (CRF) to assign a label to each word in an input sequence, and has been shown to significantly out-perform CRFs. In contrast(More)
Histogram shifting (HS) is a useful technique of reversible data hiding (RDH). With HS-based RDH, high capacity and low distortion can be achieved efficiently. In this paper, we revisit the HS technique and present a general framework to construct HS-based RDH. By the proposed framework, one can get a RDH algorithm by simply designing the so-called shifting(More)
This article describes an application of the partially observable Markov (POM) model to the analysis of a large scale commercial web search log. Mathematically, POM is a variant of the hidden Markov model in which all the hidden state transitions do not necessarily emit observable events. This property of POM is used to model, as the hidden process, a(More)