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Deciphering the interneuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain functions, yet it remains a challenging task in neurobiology. Using simultaneous quadruple-octuple in vitro and dual in vivo whole-cell recordings, we found two previously unknown interneuronal circuits that link cortical layer 1-3 (L1-3) interneurons and L5 pyramidal neurons in the(More)
The occurrence of stress and anxiety disorders has been closely associated with alterations of the amygdala GABAergic system. In these disorders, dysregulation of the serotonergic system, a very important modulator of the amygdala GABAergic system, is also well recognized. The present study, utilizing a learned helplessness stress rat model, was designed to(More)
Since the work of Ramón y Cajal in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, neuroscientists have speculated that a complete understanding of neuronal cell types and their connections is key to explaining complex brain functions. However, a complete census of the constituent cell types and their wiring diagram in mature neocortex remains elusive. By combining(More)
Activation of central 5-HT(2A) receptor signaling and its subsequent alterations have been implicated in the pathophysiological response to stress and the pathogenesis of stress-associated psychiatric disorders. To further examine the association between alterations in central 5-HT(2A) receptor signaling and the occurrence of stress-induced psychiatric(More)
Interneurons play a key role in cortical function and dysfunction, yet organization of cortical interneuronal circuitry remains poorly understood. Cortical Layer 1 (L1) contains 2 general GABAergic interneuron groups, namely single bouquet cells (SBCs) and elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs). SBCs predominantly make unidirectional inhibitory connections(More)
While the benzazepine SKF83959 elicits classical behavioral responses associated with dopamine D1 receptors, it also acts as a D1 receptor antagonist biochemically. The paradoxical properties of this agent remain an enigma. In the present study, we sought to determine the behavioral effects of SKF83959 in the rat acoustic startle reflex test. Systemic(More)
Deciphering neuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain function and dysfunction, yet it remains a daunting task. To facilitate the dissection of neuronal circuits, a process requiring functional analysis of synaptic connections and morphological identification of interconnected neurons, we present here a method for stable simultaneous octuple(More)
Despite the importance of the mammalian neocortex for complex cognitive processes, we still lack a comprehensive description of its cellular components. To improve the classification of neuronal cell types and the functional characterization of single neurons, we present Patch-seq, a method that combines whole-cell electrophysiological patch-clamp(More)
Recent study demonstrated a close relationship between cerebellum atrophy and symptom severity of pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has also been known that females are more vulnerable than males in developing anxiety disorders after exposure to traumatic stress. The mechanisms are unknown. Because cannabinoid receptors(More)
Historical geoclimatic events have shaped the distribution patterns and intraspecific divergence of plants. Numerous phylogeographical studies in China have focused on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas due to the complex topography and high species diversity, but the impact of Neogene events and Quaternary climatic change on the flora of(More)