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We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with melanoma, ipilimumab (an antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4]) prolongs overall survival, and nivolumab (an antibody against the programmed death 1 [PD-1] receptor) produced durable tumor regression in a phase 1 trial. On the basis of their distinct immunologic mechanisms of action and supportive(More)
BACKGROUND On March 30, a novel influenza A subtype H7N9 virus (A/H7N9) was detected in patients with severe respiratory disease in eastern China. Virological factors associated with a poor clinical outcome for this virus remain unclear. We quantified the viral load and analysed antiviral resistance mutations in specimens from patients with A/H7N9. (More)
BACKGROUND Depression of peripheral blood cells is a well-known indicator of benzene hematotoxicity. Previous studies of its effects on specific types of blood cells have yielded inconsistent results. We examine hematological findings and their possible relations with exposure markers validated in a recent biomarker project conducted in Tianjin, China. (More)
Whether changes in renal blood flow (RBF) are associated with and possibly contribute to cystic disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been ascertained. The Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) was created to develop imaging techniques and analyses to evaluate(More)
Agnathan fish hold a key position in vertebrate evolution, especially regarding the origin of the head and neural-crest-derived tissue. In contrast to amphioxus, lampreys and other vertebrates possess a complex brain and placodes that contribute to well-developed eyes, as well as auditory and olfactory systems. These sensory sytems were arguably a trigger(More)
BACKGROUND Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a member of the lipocalin family. Recently, an elevated NGAL expression was reported in several types of cancers. However, the characteristics of NGAL expression in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unknown. AIM To demonstrate the role of NGAL in ESCC. METHODS NGAL(More)
Patients with the genomic instability syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA) commonly develop progressive bone marrow (BM) failure and have a high risk of cancer. Certain manifestations of the disease suggest that the FA immune system is dysfunctional and may contribute to the pathogenesis of both BM failure and malignancies. In this study, we have investigated(More)