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While progenitor-restricted factors broadly specify area identities in developing neocortex, the downstream regulatory elements involved in acquisition of those identities in postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here, we identify Bhlhb5, a transcription factor expressed in layers II-V, as a postmitotic regulator of area identity. Bhlhb5 is initially(More)
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a(More)
HDR syndrome (also known as Barakat syndrome) is a developmental disorder characterized by hypoparathyroidism, sensorineural deafness and renal disease. Although genetic mapping and subsequent functional studies indicate that GATA3 haplo-insufficiency causes human HDR syndrome, the role of Gata3 in sensorineural deafness and auditory system development is(More)
The mammalian retina is comprised of six major neuronal cell types and is subdivided into more morphological and physiological subtypes. The transcriptional machinery underlying these subtype fate choices is largely unknown. The LIM-homeodomain protein, Isl1, plays an essential role in central nervous system (CNS) differentiation but its relationship to(More)
During development, compartmentalization of an early embryonic structure produces blocks of cells with distinct properties and developmental potentials. The auditory and vestibular components of vertebrate inner ears are derived from defined compartments within the otocyst during embryogenesis. The vestibular apparatus, including three semicircular canals,(More)
POU-homeodomain and LIM-homeodomain transcription factors are expressed in developing projection neurons within retina, inner ear, dorsal root ganglion, and trigeminal ganglion, and play synergistic roles in their differentiation and survival. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we present a comparative analysis of the spatiotemporal expression pattern of(More)
Atoh1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor required for the development of the inner ear sensory epithelia, the dorsal spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and intestinal secretory cells. In this study, to create a genetic tool for the research on gene function in the ear sensory organs, we generated an Atoh1-Cre knock-in mouse line(More)
The mammalian retina comprises six major neuronal cell types and one glial type that are further classified into multiple subtypes based on their anatomical and functional differences. Nevertheless, how these subtypes arise remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of Bhlhb5, a bHLH transcription factor of the(More)
Whereas the mammalian retina possesses a repertoire of factors known to establish general retinal cell types, these factors alone cannot explain the vast diversity of neuronal subtypes. In other CNS regions, the differentiation of diverse neuronal pools is governed by coordinately acting LIM-homeodomain proteins including the Islet-class factor Islet-1(More)
LIM-homeodomain (HD) and POU-HD transcription factors play crucial roles in neurogenesis. However, it remains largely unknown how they cooperate in this process and what downstream target genes they regulate. Here, we show that ISL1, a LIM-HD protein, is co-expressed with BRN3B, a POU-HD factor, in nascent post-mitotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Similar(More)