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Successful sexual reproduction in animals and plants requires communication between male and female gametes. In flowering plants, unlike in animals, eggs and sperm cells are enclosed in multicellular embryo sacs and pollen grains, respectively; guided growth of the pollen tube into the ovule is necessary for fertilization. Pollen tube guidance requires(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care among migrant TB patients in Shanghai after the introduction of the TB-free treatment policy which has applied to migrants since 2003, and to provide policy recommendations to improve TB control in migrant populations in big cities. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 migrant(More)
SETTING County tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries are the basic health care unit for the provision of TB services in China. In the rural hills of the western provinces of China, however, county centres are often far from patients' homes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether decentralisation would result in improvements in patient access to TB services while(More)
BACKGROUND Currently three hospital and tuberculosis (TB) collaboration models exist in China: the dispensary model where TB has to be diagnosed and treated in TB dispensaries, the specialist model where TB specialist hospital also treat TB patients, and the integrated model where TB diagnosis and treatment is integrated into a general hospital. The study(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was demonstrated to be a risk factor of several cancers of the digestive system. In addition, liver cirrhosis, which could possibly result from chronic HBV infection, was associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer. However, the association of HBV infection and gastric cancer has not been investigated. (More)
BACKGROUND Public hospitals in China play an important role in tuberculosis (TB) control. Three models of hospital and TB control exist in China. The dispensary model is the most common one in which a TB dispensary provides both clinical and public health care. The specialist model is similar to the former except that a specialist TB hospital is located in(More)
BACKGROUND Financial issues are major barriers for rural-to-urban migrants accessing tuberculosis (TB) care in China. This paper discusses the effectiveness of providing financial incentives to migrant TB patients (with a focus on poor migrants in one district of Shanghai using treatment completion and default rates), the effect of financial incentives in(More)
BACKGROUND Providing good quality primary health care to all inhabitants is one of the Chinese Government's health care objectives. However, information is scarce regarding the difference in quality of primary health care delivered to migrants and local residents respectively. This study aimed to compare patients' perceptions of quality of primary health(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on tuberculosis (TB), and the implications for TB and HIV control, is a public health challenge in Ghana - almost a quarter (23%) of all TB cases were HIV positive in 2010. The integration of TB/HIV services has therefore emerged as an essential component of the national response to TB and HIV.(More)
In China's healthcare reform, community health centers (CHCs) are designed to take a pivotal role in providing primary care. Whilst about 20% of all outpatient care in China is delivered by the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) sector, hospitals, instead of CHCs, are major providers. Using current patterns of patient utilization this study aims to inform(More)