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Successful sexual reproduction in animals and plants requires communication between male and female gametes. In flowering plants, unlike in animals, eggs and sperm cells are enclosed in multicellular embryo sacs and pollen grains, respectively; guided growth of the pollen tube into the ovule is necessary for fertilization. Pollen tube guidance requires(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was demonstrated to be a risk factor of several cancers of the digestive system. In addition, liver cirrhosis, which could possibly result from chronic HBV infection, was associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer. However, the association of HBV infection and gastric cancer has not been investigated. (More)
SETTING County tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries are the basic health care unit for the provision of TB services in China. In the rural hills of the western provinces of China, however, county centres are often far from patients' homes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether decentralisation would result in improvements in patient access to TB services while(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand barriers to tuberculosis (TB) care among migrant TB patients in Shanghai after the introduction of the TB-free treatment policy which has applied to migrants since 2003, and to provide policy recommendations to improve TB control in migrant populations in big cities. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 migrant(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on tuberculosis (TB), and the implications for TB and HIV control, is a public health challenge in Ghana - almost a quarter (23%) of all TB cases were HIV positive in 2010. The integration of TB/HIV services has therefore emerged as an essential component of the national response to TB and HIV.(More)
INTRODUCTION China has a higher household secondhand smoke exposure rate than other countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence rate of households implementing smoking bans in Guangdong and to identify factors correlated with household smoking bans. METHODS A cross-sectional, stratified random cluster sampling survey was conducted in Guangdong(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility and effects of identifying tuberculosis (TB) cases by integrating TB screening into routine health examinations for the elderly in rural China. METHODS Three counties in Shandong Province were randomly selected for TB screening among three groups of elderly individuals (aged ⩾60 years) at high risk for TB: 1) those with(More)
Discovering ways to increase access to and delivery of interventions is a major challenge. Typically research is divorced from implementation, which has led to a growing literature about how to get research into practice. However, operational research is best prioritized, designed, implemented and replicated from within national programmes. The current(More)
PURPOSE This study aimed to determine if implant-supported overdentures are a long-term economically efficacious therapy for edentulous patients when compared to fixed osseointegrated prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical records of 25 patients from two long-term studies (fixed and overdenture) were included in this analysis. A cost minimization(More)
Strong primary care is in urgent need for the management and control of hypertension. This study aimed to compare the quality of hypertensive care delivered by community health centers (CHCs) in Shanghai and Shenzhen. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 CHCs in each city as study settings. A cohort of hypertensive patients under the(More)