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Glycine receptors (GlyRs) contribute to fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain stem and spinal cord. GlyR subunits are expressed in the developing neocortex, but a neurotransmitter system involving cortical GlyRs has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we show that GlyRs in immature neocortex are excitatory and activated by a nonsynaptically released(More)
Current theories suggest that disrupting cortical information integration may account for the mechanism of general anesthesia in suppressing consciousness. Human cognitive operations take place in hierarchically structured neural organizations in the brain. The process of low-order neural representation of sensory stimuli becoming integrated in high-order(More)
This paper introduces a novel time-domain approach to modeling and classifying speech phoneme waveforms. The approach is based on statistical models of reconstructed phase spaces, which offer significant theoretical benefits as representations that are known to be topologically equivalent to the state dynamics of the underlying production system. The lag(More)
Global expression profiling studies showed that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in uterine leiomyomas (ULMs) and are involved in ULM pathogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are another group of regulatory RNA whose expression and roles in ULMs have not been explored. In this study, we examined the global expressions of lncRNAs and mRNAs in ULMs using(More)
Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis is an endangered freshwater fish confined to cold-water mountain streams and rivers in Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi province, China. We isolated and characterized 11 microsatellite loci for Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis and examined them for 42 individuals from Xushui River in Qinling Mountain. The number of alleles per(More)
Fc receptor like 3 gene (FcRL3) has been associated with some autoimmune diseases. Here, its role in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) was evaluated by studying nine FcRL3 gene SNPs in a Chinese cohort of GBS patients. The frequencies of FcRL3-3-169C, FcRL3-6 intron3A, and FcRL3-8 exon15G alleles were significantly increased in GBS patients compared with(More)
BACKGROUND Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences are widely used in applications such as genome annotation, gene discovery and gene expression studies. However, some of GenBank dbEST sequences have proven to be "unclean". Identification of cDNA termini/ends and their structures in raw ESTs not only facilitates data quality control and accurate delineation(More)
In the developing cerebellar cortex, granule neuron precursors (GNPs) proliferate and commence differentiation in a superficial zone, the external granule layer (EGL). The molecular basis of the transition from proliferating precursors to immature differentiating neurons remains unknown. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway regulating the(More)
BACKGROUND The current state of knowledge suggests that disruption of neuronal information integration may be a common mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. A neural system critical for information integration is the thalamocortical system whose specific and nonspecific divisions may play the roles for representing and integrating information,(More)