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Glycine receptors (GlyRs) contribute to fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the brain stem and spinal cord. GlyR subunits are expressed in the developing neocortex, but a neurotransmitter system involving cortical GlyRs has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we show that GlyRs in immature neocortex are excitatory and activated by a nonsynaptically released(More)
In the developing cerebellar cortex, granule neuron precursors (GNPs) proliferate and commence differentiation in a superficial zone, the external granule layer (EGL). The molecular basis of the transition from proliferating precursors to immature differentiating neurons remains unknown. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway regulating the(More)
We examined how people organize redundant kinematic control variables (finger joint configurations) while learning to make goal-directed movements of a virtual object (a cursor) within a low-dimensional task space (a computer screen). Subjects participated in three experiments performed on separate days. Learning progressed rapidly on day 1, resulting in(More)
BACKGROUND The current state of knowledge suggests that disruption of neuronal information integration may be a common mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. A neural system critical for information integration is the thalamocortical system whose specific and nonspecific divisions may play the roles for representing and integrating information,(More)
Despite intensive efforts in the field of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, it remains difficult in humans to achieve full functional recovery following extended peripheral nerve lesions. Optimizing repair of peripheral nerve injuries has been hindered by the lack of viable and reliable biologic or artificial nerve conduits for bridging extended(More)
Human Bocavirus (HBoV) is a novel virus which can cause respiratory tract disease in infants or children. In this study, the codon usage bias and the base composition variations in the available 11 complete HBoV genome sequences have been investigated. Although, there is a significant variation in codon usage bias among different HBoV genes, codon usage(More)
In this study, we explored the competence of adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into Schwann cells in vitro. Rat adipose-derived stem cells were sequentially treated with various factors beta-mercaptoethanol, all-trans-retinoic acid, followed by a mixture of forskolin, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and heregulin. We(More)
This paper introduces a novel time-domain approach to modeling and classifying speech phoneme waveforms. The approach is based on statistical models of reconstructed phase spaces, which offer significant theoretical benefits as representations that are known to be topologically equivalent to the state dynamics of the underlying production system. The lag(More)
OBJECTIVE This study is to investigate the expression levels of stathmin in tissues of gastric cancer, and evaluate the therapeutic effects of stathmin antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ASODN) and/or docetaxel in human gastric cancer cells. METHODS Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression levels of stathmin in gastric cancer and adjacent(More)
This study evaluated the effects of the transplantation of a tissue-engineered nerve derived from an acellular allogenic nerve graft, combined with autologous bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs), into peripheral nerve defects. In a rhesus monkey model, nerve regeneration was evaluated across a 1-cm lesion in the radial nerve by using an acellular allogenic(More)