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Methamphetamine [METH ("speed")] is an abused psychostimulant that can cause psychotic, cognitive, and psychomotor impairment in humans. These signs and symptoms are thought to be related to dysfunctions in basal ganglionic structures of the brain. To identify possible molecular bases for these clinical manifestations, we first used cDNA microarray(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug that causes neurodegenerative effects in humans. In rodents, METH induces apoptosis of striatal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) -containing neurons. This paper provides evidence that METH-induced cell death occurs consequent to interactions of ER stress and mitochondrial death pathways. Specifically, injections of(More)
Bcl-2, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein, inhibits apoptotic neuronal cell death. Expression of Bcl-2 inhibits cell death by decreasing the net cellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Studies by different investigators have provided unimpeachable evidence of a role for oxygen-based free radicals in methamphetamine (METH) -induced(More)
Methamphetamine is a neurotoxic drug of abuse known to cause cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this process remain to be clarified. Herein, we show that methamphetamine-induced apoptosis is associated with early (2 h) overexpression of bax, decreases of mitochondrial membrane potential and(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse that has long been known to damage monoaminergic systems in the mammalian brain. Recent reports have provided conclusive evidence that METH can cause neuropathological changes in the rodent brain via apoptotic mechanisms akin to those reported in various models of neuronal death. The purpose of this review is to(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug that causes neuronal apoptosis in the mouse striatum, in a manner similar to the neuronal loss observed in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, injections of METH to mice were found to cause the death of enkephalin-positive projection neurons but not the death of neuropeptide Y (NPY)/nitric oxide(More)
Free radicals are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, such as ischemia and aging. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with diets enriched with blueberry, spinach, or spirulina have been shown to reduce neurodegenerative changes in aged animals. The purpose of this study was to determine if these diets have neuroprotective effects in focal(More)
Increasing evidence implicates apoptosis as a major mechanism of cell death in methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. The involvement of a neuroimmune component in apoptotic cell death after injury or chemical damage suggests that cytokines may play a role in METH effects. In the present study, we examined if the absence of IL-6 in knockout (IL-6-/-) mice(More)
Methamphetamine neurotoxicity has been demonstrated in rodents and nonhuman primates. These neurotoxic effects may be associated with mechanisms involved in oxidative stress and the activation of immediate early genes (IEG). It is not clear, however, whether these IEG responses are involved in a methamphetamine-induced toxic cascade or in protective(More)
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dNTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) histochemistry is a sensitive method to expose DNA strand breaks in apoptotic cells, but it is difficult to conduct on slide-mounted sections. By using a 80 degrees C/0.5% Triton X-100 pretreatment, we have developed a TUNEL histochemical approach with high specificity and(More)