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have been extensively applied to global climate change. However, the noise impedes these data from being further analyzed and used. In this paper, a wavelet-based method is used to remove the contaminated data from time-series observations, which can effectively maintain the temporal pattern and approximate the " true " signals. The method is composed of(More)
The Midwest of the United States includes 12 states and accounts for about a quarter of the total United State land area. In recent years, there is an increasing interest in knowing the biomass potential and carbon balance over this region for the past and the future. In this study, we use the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to evaluate these quantities(More)
Simulation result for protein folding/unfolding is highly dependent on the accuracy of the force field employed. Even for the simplest structure of protein such as a short helix, simulations using the existing force fields often fail to produce the correct structural/thermodynamic properties of the protein. Recent research indicated that lack of(More)
[1] Much progress has been made in methane modeling for the Arctic. However, there is still large uncertainty in emissions estimates due to the spatial variability in water table depth resulting from complex topographic gradients, and due to variations in methane production and oxidation due to complex freezing and thawing processes. Here we extended an(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o In this study, we used the remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), meteorological and eddy flux data and an artificial neural networks (ANNs) technique to develop a daily evapotranspiration (ET) product for the period of 2004–2005 for the conterminous U.S. We then estimated and analyzed the(More)
Development of regional policies to reduce net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) would benefit from the quantification of the major components of the region's carbon balance--fossil fuel CO2 emissions and net fluxes between land ecosystems and the atmosphere. Through spatially detailed inventories of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and a terrestrial(More)
Under Grid environments, how to access a set of heterogeneous data resource in a uniformed way is a well studied subject. The two most important problems about it are: 1. how to hide the different access manners of different data resources and 2. how to map real data to virtual data which can be used by various applications. In this paper, the Data Grid(More)
Protected Areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous U.S. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial biogeochemistry model(More)