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We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the(More)
* Large-scale duplication events have been recently uncovered in the rice genome, but different interpretations were proposed regarding the extent of the duplications. * Through analysing the 370 Mb genome sequences assembled into 12 chromosomes of Oryza sativa subspecies indica, we detected 10 duplicated blocks on all 12 chromosomes that contained 47% of(More)
The effects of the pleiotropic serine protease thrombin on tumor cells are commonly thought to be mediated by the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). We demonstrate here that PAR1 activation has a role in experimental metastasis using the anti-PAR1 antibodies ATAP2 and WEDE15, which block PAR1 cleavage and activation. Thrombin also(More)
To investigate the changes in the morphology and polysaccharide content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. during flagellate grazing, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to grazing Ochromonas sp. for a period of 9 d under controlled laboratory conditions. M. aeruginosa responded actively to flagellate grazing and formed colonies, most of which were(More)
Gene-expression divergence between species shapes morphological evolution, but the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show cis- and trans-regulatory elements and chromatin modifications on gene-expression diversity in genetically tractable Arabidopsis allotetraploids. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, both cis and trans with(More)
We have investigated the capability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to penetrate the cell wall and cell membrane of intact plant cells. Confocal fluorescence images revealed the cellular uptake of both SWNT/fluorescein isothiocyanate and SWNT/DNA conjugates, demonstrating that SWNTs also hold great promise as nanotransporters for walled plant(More)
Although polyploidy is common in plants and some animals, mechanisms for functional divergence between homoeologous genes are poorly understood. MYB2 gene promotes cotton fibre development and is functionally homologous to Arabidopsis GLABROUS1 (GL1) in trichome formation. The most widely cultivated cotton is an allotetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD)(More)
AIMS Intercellular interactions between cardiomyocytes (CMs) and cardiofibroblasts (FBs) are important in the physiological and pathophysiological heart. Understanding such interactions is important for developing effective heart disease therapies. However, until recently, little has been known about these interactions. We aimed to investigate structural(More)
Influences of substrate stiffness on mechanical properties of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts were investigated by cell elasticity measurement with atomic force microscopy. The cells were cultured on collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates with gradient rigidity. While cardiac myocytes showed no evident change in cell elasticity on different substrates,(More)
Cyanobacterial blooms are often a result of eutrophication. Recently, however, their expansion has also been found to be associated with changes in climate. To elucidate the effects of climatic variables on the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu, China, we analyzed the relationships between climatic variables and bloom events which were retrieved(More)