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We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the(More)
* Large-scale duplication events have been recently uncovered in the rice genome, but different interpretations were proposed regarding the extent of the duplications. * Through analysing the 370 Mb genome sequences assembled into 12 chromosomes of Oryza sativa subspecies indica, we detected 10 duplicated blocks on all 12 chromosomes that contained 47% of(More)
Gene-expression divergence between species shapes morphological evolution, but the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show cis- and trans-regulatory elements and chromatin modifications on gene-expression diversity in genetically tractable Arabidopsis allotetraploids. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa, both cis and trans with(More)
To investigate the changes in the morphology and polysaccharide content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) Kütz. during flagellate grazing, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to grazing Ochromonas sp. for a period of 9 d under controlled laboratory conditions. M. aeruginosa responded actively to flagellate grazing and formed colonies, most of which were(More)
The effects of the pleiotropic serine protease thrombin on tumor cells are commonly thought to be mediated by the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). We demonstrate here that PAR1 activation has a role in experimental metastasis using the anti-PAR1 antibodies ATAP2 and WEDE15, which block PAR1 cleavage and activation. Thrombin also(More)
We have investigated the capability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to penetrate the cell wall and cell membrane of intact plant cells. Confocal fluorescence images revealed the cellular uptake of both SWNT/fluorescein isothiocyanate and SWNT/DNA conjugates, demonstrating that SWNTs also hold great promise as nanotransporters for walled plant(More)
Although polyploidy is common in plants and some animals, mechanisms for functional divergence between homoeologous genes are poorly understood. MYB2 gene promotes cotton fibre development and is functionally homologous to Arabidopsis GLABROUS1 (GL1) in trichome formation. The most widely cultivated cotton is an allotetraploid (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD)(More)
Yeast damage-associated response protein (Dap1p) and mouse progesterone receptor membrane component-1 protein (mPGRMC1p) belong to a highly conserved class of putative membrane-associated progesterone binding proteins (MAPR), with Dap1p and inner zone antigen (IZA), the rat homologue of mPGRMC1p, recently being reported to bind heme. While primary structure(More)
With the rapid development of quantum dot (QD) technology, water-soluble QDs have the prospect of being used as a biological probe for specific diagnoses, but their biological behaviors in vivo are little known. Our recent in vivo studies concentrated on the bio-kinetics of QDs coated by hydroxyl group modified silica networks (the QDs are 21.3+/-2.0 nm in(More)
Fre1p is a metalloreductase in the yeast plasma membrane that is essential to uptake of environmental Cu2+ and Fe3+. Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase in this membrane essential for high affinity iron uptake. In the uptake of Fe3+, Fre1p produces Fe2+ that is a substrate for Fet3p; the Fe3+ produced by Fet3p is a ligand for the iron permease, Ftr1p. Deletion(More)