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PURPOSE To examine the association between household use of biomass fuels for cooking and birth weight. METHODS Analysis is based on 3559 childbirths in the 5 years preceding the 1999 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey. Birth weights, recorded by trained professionals at local health clinics, were derived from health cards at home or from mother's(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency in pregnant women has been shown to reduce the oxygen supply to the fetus, cause intrauterine growth retardation, and increase the risk of premature delivery and reduced birthweight. Yet the effects of iron supplementation programs on pregnancy outcomes are not well documented for developing countries. OBJECTIVE To examine the(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand the embryo after-ripening phenomenon of Panax quinquefolium, the growth and development process of fruit and seed was investigated in this study. METHOD The growth and development characteristics of fruit and seed were obtained by field observation, the morphological changes were measured with a vernier caliper, paraffin section(More)
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