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Peptidoglycans (PGNs) are immunogenic bacterial surface patterns that trigger immune activation in metazoans and plants. It is generally unknown how complex bacterial structures such as PGNs are perceived by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and whether host hydrolytic activities facilitate decomposition of bacterial matrices and generation of(More)
Highly pathogenic H5N1 infections are often accompanied by excessive pro-inflammatory response, high viral titer, and apoptosis; as such, the efficient control of these infections poses a great challenge. The pathogenesis of influenza virus infection is also related to oxidative stress. However, the role of endogenic genes with antioxidant effect in the(More)
NS2 from influenza A virus mediates Crm1-dependent vRNP nuclear export through interaction with Crm1. However, even though the nuclear export signal 1 (NES1) of NS2 does not play a requisite role in NS2–Crm1 interaction, there is no doubt that NES1 is crucial for vRNP nuclear export. While the mechanism of the NES1 is still unclear, it is speculated that(More)
H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory diseases and high mortality rates in animals and humans. MicroRNAs are being increasingly studied to evaluate their potential as therapeutic entities to combat viral infection. However, mechanistic studies delineating the roles of microRNAs in regulating host-H5N1 virus interactions remain scarce. Here,(More)
Unlike glycoprotein C (gC) of many mammalian herpes viruses, gC of some avian herpes viruses does not play a principle role in the binding of virus to heparin sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface. The roles of duck enteritis virus (DEV) gC on viral attachment remained unclear. In this study, we showed that gC expressed in vitro could bind to chicken(More)
Swine influenza virus and Streptococcus suis are two important contributors to the porcine respiratory disease complex, and both have significant economic impacts. Clinically, influenza virus and Streptococcus suis co-infections in pigs are very common, which often contribute to severe pneumonia and can increase the mortality. However, the co-infection(More)
Kunming mice are widely used in China; however, it is difficult to isolate embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in conventional derivation condition containing feeder cells and serum. 6-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO), a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor, could facilitate the maintenance of pluripotency of ESCs. Therefore, BIO could be considered as a(More)
Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that dopamine D1-like receptor (D1-like-R) signalling is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and type I diabetes. Given that allergic asthma shares certain disease aetiology similarities with autoimmune diseases, we conducted studies in OVA-induced mice aiming to address(More)
Influenza virus NS2 is well known for its role in viral ribonucleoprotein nuclear export; however, its function has not been fully understood. A recent study showed that NS2 might interact with HIST1H1C (H1C, H1.2). Histones have been found to affect influenza virus replication, such as the H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, but H1 has not been detected. Here, we found(More)
The identification of small molecular inhibitors, which were reported to promote the derivation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), provides a potential strategy for the derivation of domesticated ungulate ESCs. In present study, goat inner cell mass (ICM) derived cells in the double inhibition (2i) condition, in which, mitogen-activated protein(More)