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The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates(More)
Touch sensation is mediated by specific subtypes of sensory neurons which develop in a hierarchical process from common early progenitor neurons, but the molecular mechanism that underlies diversification of touch-sensitive mechanoreceptive neurons is not fully known. Here, we use genetically manipulated mice to examine whether the transcription factor(More)
Transduction of pain following noxious stimuli is mediated by the activation of specialized ion channels and receptors expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons. A common early nociceptive sublineage expressing the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA diversifies into peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors around birth. In this process, peptidergic neurons(More)
This paper is a report of a second round of RNA-Puzzles, a collective and blind experiment in three-dimensional (3D) RNA structure prediction. Three puzzles, Puzzles 5, 6, and 10, represented sequences of three large RNA structures with limited or no homology with previously solved RNA molecules. A lariat-capping ribozyme, as well as riboswitches complexed(More)
Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), however, its pathophysiology still remains unclear. With increasing evidence suggesting that depression is a disconnection syndrome, we hypothesized that depression in PD is caused by degenerated fiber connections in the brain. We examined whole brain white matter integrity in 15(More)
Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, there may be a common neural mechanism underlying the two diseases. Lewy body accumulation in specific brain areas of PD patients may damage emotion-related functions, leading to depression. Among these areas, the amygdala may present with the earliest to be damaged in PD.(More)
Since the discovery of galanin in 1983, one of the most frequently suggested physiological function for this peptide is pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord. This notion, initially based on the preferential distribution of galanin in dorsal spinal cord, has been supported by results from a large number of morphological, molecular, and functional(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of extreme cold events on mortality in subtropical regions. OBJECTIVE In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of the 2008 cold spell on mortality and the possibility of mortality displacement in three subtropical cities in China. METHODS Daily mortality, air pollution,(More)
BACKGROUND Nerve injury-triggered hyperexcitability in primary sensory neurons is considered a major source of chronic neuropathic pain. The hyperexcitability, in turn, is thought to be related to transcriptional switching in afferent cell somata. Analysis using expression microarrays has revealed that many genes are regulated in the dorsal root ganglion(More)
Patients who have suffered nerve injury show profound inter-individual variability in neuropathic pain even when the precipitating injury is nearly identical. Variability in pain behavior is also observed across inbred strains of mice where it has been attributed to genetic polymorphisms. Identification of cellular correlates of pain variability across(More)