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The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates(More)
Transduction of pain following noxious stimuli is mediated by the activation of specialized ion channels and receptors expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons. A common early nociceptive sublineage expressing the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA diversifies into peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors around birth. In this process, peptidergic neurons(More)
Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, there may be a common neural mechanism underlying the two diseases. Lewy body accumulation in specific brain areas of PD patients may damage emotion-related functions, leading to depression. Among these areas, the amygdala may present with the earliest to be damaged in PD.(More)
This paper is a report of a second round of RNA-Puzzles, a collective and blind experiment in three-dimensional (3D) RNA structure prediction. Three puzzles, Puzzles 5, 6, and 10, represented sequences of three large RNA structures with limited or no homology with previously solved RNA molecules. A lariat-capping ribozyme, as well as riboswitches complexed(More)
Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), however, its pathophysiology still remains unclear. With increasing evidence suggesting that depression is a disconnection syndrome, we hypothesized that depression in PD is caused by degenerated fiber connections in the brain. We examined whole brain white matter integrity in 15(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of extreme cold events on mortality in subtropical regions. OBJECTIVE In the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of the 2008 cold spell on mortality and the possibility of mortality displacement in three subtropical cities in China. METHODS Daily mortality, air pollution,(More)
The (3)He MR diffusion signal is sensitive to lung microstructure, but it is also affected by the presence of background field inhomogeneities induced by the magnetic susceptibility difference at the air-tissue interface. These susceptibility-induced gradients, which are dependent on field strength, have been assumed negligible in theoretical models used to(More)
Hyperpolarized noble gas ((3)He and (129)Xe) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements have shown remarkable sensitivity to microstructural (i.e., alveolar) changes in the lung, particularly emphysema. The ADC of hyperpolarized noble gases depends strongly on the diffusion time (Δ), and (3)He ADC has been shown to be anisotropic for Δ ranging from a(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, neuroimaging has been increasingly used as an objective method for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most previous studies were based on invasive imaging modalities or on a single modality which was not an ideal diagnostic tool. In this study, we developed a non-invasive technology intended for use in the diagnosis of(More)
It is well known that iron accumulates in the brains of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand disease-related iron changes, it is necessary to know the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain. Studies have shown that brain iron levels increase with aging. However, the effects of gender and(More)