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A novel Potato virus Y (PVY) isolate, L26, recovered from a Frontier potato line was initially typed as a PVY(NTN) strain using multiplex RT-PCR and serological assays. However, L26 induced mosaic and mild vein clearing symptoms in tobacco rather than vein necrosis characteristic of the PVY (NTN) strain. The whole genome sequence was determined for L26 and(More)
The ordinary strain of Potato virus Y (PVY), PVY(O), causes mild mosaic in tobacco and induces necrosis and severe stunting in potato cultivars carrying the Ny gene. A novel substrain of PVY(O) was recently reported, PVY(O)-O5, which is spreading in the United States and is distinguished from other PVY(O) isolates serologically (i.e., reacting to the(More)
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important plant pathogens. The PVY genome has a high degree of genetic variability and is also subject to recombination. New recombinants have been reported in many countries since the 1980s, but the origin of these recombinant strains and the physical and evolutionary mechanisms driving their emergence(More)
Potato virus Y (PVY) strains were originally defined by interactions with different resistance genes in standard potato cultivars. Five distinct strain groups are defined that cause local or systemic hypersensitive responses (HRs) in genetic background with a corresponding N gene: PVY(O), PVY(N), PVY(C), PVY(Z), and PVY(E). The nucleotide sequences of(More)
In the course of a multi-year survey of Potato virus Y (PVY) incidence and diversity in the U.S. seed potato crop, an unusual PVY variant was identified in low but significant levels in multiple states. This variant, PVYO-O5, was initially detected by a commercially available PVYN-specific monoclonal antibody, 1F5. This antibody is widely used by U.S. Seed(More)
In this study, a series of relative indicators are used to compare the difference in research performance in biomedical fields between ten selected Western and Asian countries. Based on Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) 1996–2006, the output of papers and their citations in ten biomedical fields are compared at multiple levels using relative(More)
Thermal conductivity (kappa) of isolated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is higher than the kappa of diamond; however, in this Letter we show that the kappa of a packed bed of three-dimensional random networks of single and multiwall CNTs is smaller than that of thermally insulating amorphous polymers. The thermoelectric power (Sigma) of the random network of CNTs(More)