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Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes an initial phase of endosperm proliferation followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows at the expense of the endosperm. As mature seed size is largely attained during the initial phase, seed size is coordinately determined by the growth of the maternal ovule, endosperm, and embryo. Here, we(More)
Cell-surface-localized plant immune receptors, such as FLS2, detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) through poorly understood signal-transduction pathways. The pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrPphB, a cysteine protease, cleaves the Arabidopsis receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase PBS1 to(More)
The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 senses the bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate transient elevation of cytosolic calcium ions, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other signaling events to coordinate antimicrobial defenses, such as stomatal closure that limits bacterial invasion. However, how FLS2 regulates these signaling events(More)
Stomata are natural openings through which many pathogenic bacteria enter plants. Successful bacterial pathogens have evolved various virulence factors to promote stomatal opening. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein AvrB induces stomatal opening and enhances bacterial virulence in a manner dependent on RPM1-INTERACTING4(More)
To utilize aptamers as molecular recognition agents in biosensors and biodiagnostics, it is important to develop strategies for reliable immobilization of aptamers so that they retain their biophysical characteristics and binding abilities. Here we report on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements and atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force(More)
In plants, host response to pathogenic microbes is driven both by microbial perception and detection of modified-self. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein AvrAC/XopAC uridylylates the Arabidopsis BIK1 kinase to dampen basal resistance and thereby promotes bacterial virulence. Here we show that PBL2, a paralog of BIK1, is similarly uridylylated by(More)
Spindle assembly checkpoint kinase Mps1 is spatially and temporally regulated during cell cycle progression. Mps1 is predominately localized to the cytosol in interphase cells, whereas it is concentrated on kinetochores in prophase and prometaphase cells. The timing and mechanism of Mps1 redistribution during cell cycle transition is currently poorly(More)
The Yr26 gene, conferring resistance to all currently important races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) in China, was previously mapped to wheat chromosome deletion bin C-1BL-6-0.32 with low-density markers. In this study, collinearity of wheat to Brachypodium distachyon and rice was used to develop markers to saturate the chromosomal region(More)
We consider multi-hop OFDM relaying systems employing either decode-and-forward (DF) or amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying protocols in this paper. We propose adaptive power allocation (PA) algorithms under joint transmit power constraint at source and relays in order to maximize system capacity with channel state information (CSI) known at all nodes. The(More)
The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism.(More)