Xiaojuan Pan

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The high rate of interval malignancies urges for new screening methods for women at high risk for breast cancer. Nipple aspiration provides direct access to the breast tissue and its DNA, and therefore is a likely candidate, but clinical applications have been limited by the failure to obtain nipple aspiration fluid from most women. We performed(More)
Intratumor heterogeneity may lead to sampling bias and may present major challenges to personalized medicine and biomarker development. Despite many studies investigating genetic heterogeneity, epigenetic intratumor heterogeneity of promoter hypermethylation has only rarely been examined in breast cancer. To examine clonal intratumor heterogeneity of(More)
BACKGROUND Promoter hypermethylation has emerged as a promising cancer biomarker. Currently, a large variety of quantitative and non-quantitative techniques is used to measure methylation in clinical specimens. Here we directly compared three commonly used methylation assays and assessed the influence of tissue fixation, target sequence location and the(More)
DNA promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is known to occur early in cancer development, including breast cancer. To improve early breast cancer detection, we aimed to investigate whether the identification of DNA promoter hypermethylation might be of added value. The methylation status of a panel of 19 candidate genes (AKR1B1, ALX1, ARHGEF7,(More)
BRCA deficiency predisposes to the development of invasive breast cancer. In BRCA mutation carriers this risk can increase up to 80%. Currently, bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are the only preventive, albeit radical invasive strategies to prevent breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers. An alternative(More)
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women in the Western world. In the Netherlands, the incidence is about 12,000 per year, which means that eventually every 9 th woman will get breast cancer. The most wellestablished breast cancer risk factor is the presence of a germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, which indicates a life time(More)
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