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Reliable experimental models are needed to help improve our knowledge of how the central nervous system adapts to function in the presence of muscle pain in man. We developed a microprocessor-based control system for maintaining a constant level of experimental muscle pain. Pain was induced in the relaxed right masseter of healthy young adults by using an(More)
BACKGROUND The Friedewald formula (FF) is useful for calculating serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values, but has a remarkable deviation and limitation especially in hypertriglyceridemia. We modify the formula which is now more suitable for LDL-C calculation. METHODS 2180 cases were classified into three groups according to their TG(More)
BACKGROUND Bupivacaine is an amide type local anesthetic which is widely used for epidural anesthesia and nerve blockade in patients. However, local administration of bupivacaine could cause neuron injury showing transient neurologic symptoms. alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) was shown to protect nerve cells from substance-induced injury. We hypothesized that LA(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine whether tonic muscle pain of an intensity at least as great as that reported by the majority of chronic muscle pain patients causes an increase in postural electromyographic activity of the affected musculature. Twenty young adults volunteered for experiments, knowing that they involved experimental pain. We chose a(More)
Lithium, a drug used for the treatment of bipolar disorder, has been shown to affect different aspects of neuronal development such as neuritogenesis, neurogenesis and survival. The underlying mechanism responsible for lithium's influence on neuronal development, however, still remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that lithium(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress and myocyte apoptosis are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of heart failure (HF). Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) has been found to confer resistance to oxidative stress in cultured cells; however, the role of Hsp27 in in-vivo hearts remains to be determined. AIM To investigate the(More)
The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is crucial for the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. However, how Notch signaling regulates the EMT process and invasion in breast cancer remains largely unknown. The impact of Notch1 silencing by specific shRNAs on the EMT and invasion of human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as well as(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1 or Flt-1), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues, but near absent in normal breast tissue. While VEGFR-1 expression is associated with poor prognosis of women with breast cancer, it is not clear whether it is involved in the aggressiveness of breast cancer. Thus, the(More)
For an (n − 1)-Auslander algebra Λ with global dimension n, we give some necessary conditions for Λ admitting a maximal (n − 1)-orthogonal subcategory in terms of the properties of simple Λ-modules with projective dimension n − 1 or n. For an almost hereditary algebra Λ with global dimension 2, we prove that Λ admits a maximal 1-orthogonal subcategory if(More)
For an Artinian (n − 1)-Auslander algebra Λ with global dimension n(≥ 2), we show that if Λ admits a trivial maximal (n − 1)-orthogonal subcategory of mod Λ, then Λ is a Nakayama algebra and the projective or injective dimension of any indecomposable module in mod Λ is at most n − 1. As a result, for an Artinian Auslander algebra with global dimension 2, if(More)