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Mutation in the TSC2 tumor suppressor causes tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease characterized by hamartoma formation in multiple tissues. TSC2 inhibits cell growth by acting as a GTPase-activating protein toward Rheb, thereby inhibiting mTOR, a central controller of cell growth. Here, we show that Wnt activates mTOR via inhibiting GSK3 without involving(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). Enormous research has been done in the past few decades in unveiling the genetics of ALS, successfully identifying at least fifteen candidate genes associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Numerous studies(More)
Aberrant protein misfolding may contribute to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. Our previous study has shown that autophagy is altered in the mouse model of ALS. In the present study, we systematically investigated the correlation of the autophagic alteration with the motor neurons (MNs)(More)
Environmental factors are significant contributors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The greatly increased incidence of AD following stroke and cerebral ischemia suggests that hypoxia is a risk factor which may accelerate AD pathogenesis by altering amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). About 20% familial cases of ALS (fALS) carried the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene mutation, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of fALS. There is evidence suggesting that macroautophagy can degrade mutated SOD1 in vitro. To(More)
Autophagy is a lysosome degradation pathway that turns over cytoplasmic materials and helps the cell to maintain homeostasis. Usually, it is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation in order to enhance cell survival. Dysfunction in autophagy has been reported to contribute to several neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have shown that both(More)
BACKGROUND Cadmium (Cd) is a major environmental pollutant that causes multiple adverse health effects in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated Cd-mediated toxic effects in rats during pregnancy and endocrine intervention in the placenta. METHODS We exposed pregnant rats to intraperitoneal Cd (CdCl2) at various doses (0, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg(More)
Most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) arise through interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It is believed that hypoxia is an important environmental factor influencing the development of AD. Our group has previously demonstrated that hypoxia increased β-amyloid (Aβ) generation in aged AD mice. Here, we further investigate the pathological(More)
Resveratrol has recently been used as a supplemental treatment for several neurological and nonneurological diseases. It is not known whether resveratrol has neuroprotective effect on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To assess the effect of resveratrol on the disease, we tested this agent on an ALS model of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse. Rotarod(More)