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The major maturity gene E1 has the most prominent effect on flowering time and photoperiod sensitivity of soybean, but the pathway mediated by E1 is largely unknown. Here, we found the expression of GmFT4, a homolog of Flowering Locus T, was strongly up-regulated in transgenic soybean overexpressing E1, whereas expression of flowering activators, GmFT2a and(More)
We consider the dynamics when traveling pulses encounter heterogeneities in a three-component reaction diffusion system of one-activator-two-inhibitor type, which typically arises as a qualitative model of a gas-discharge system. We focused on the case where one of the kinetic coefficients changes similar to a smoothed step function, which is basic for more(More)
Orphan nuclear receptors have been instrumental in identifying novel signaling pathways and therapeutic targets. However, identification of ligands for these receptors has often been based on random compound screens or other biased approaches. As a result, it remains unclear in many cases if the reported ligands are the true endogenous ligands,--i.e., the(More)
Flowering time, maturity, and plant morphology have considerable effects on the adaptation and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max). The identification of novel genes and an understanding of their molecular basis are critical to improve soybean productivity. In this study, we cloned a flowering time related APETALA2-like gene GmTOE4a and generated(More)
The breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland into Africa, Antarctica, Australia and India about 140 million years ago, and consequently the opening of the Indian Ocean, is thought to have been caused by heating of the lithosphere from below by a large plume whose relicts are now the Marion, Kerguelen and Réunion plumes. Plate reconstructions based on(More)
Soybean (Glycine max) cultivars adapted to high latitudes have a weakened or absent sensitivity to photoperiod. The purposes of this study were to determine the molecular basis for photoperiod insensitivity in various soybean accessions, focusing on the sequence diversity of the E4 (GmphyA2) gene, which encodes a phytochrome A (phyA) protein, and 118 its(More)