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This study tested if sodium valproate or lithium, two agents used to treat bipolar mood disorder, altered the regulatory phosphorylations of Akt or glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with sodium valproate caused a gradual but relatively large increase in the activation-associated phosphorylation of Akt(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has been recognized as an important enzyme that modulates many aspects of neuronal function. Accumulating evidence implicates abnormal activity of GSK3 in mood disorders and schizophrenia, and GSK3 is a potential protein kinase target for psychotropics used in these disorders. We previously reported that serotonin, a major(More)
Bipolar disorder, characterized by extreme manic and depressive moods, is a prevalent debilitating disease of unknown etiology. Because mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and mood-regulating neuromodulators increase the inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), we hypothesized that deficient GSK3(More)
The involvement of genes in flavones biosynthesis was investigated in different organs and suspension cells obtained from Scutellaria baicalensis. Three full-length cDNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase isoforms (SbPAL1, SbPAL2, and SbAPL3) and one gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (SbC4H) from S. baicalensis were isolated using rapid amplification(More)
We determined composition and relative roles of deubiquitylating proteins associated with the 26S proteasome in mammalian cells. Three deubiquitylating activities were associated with the 26S proteasome: two from constituent subunits, Rpn11/S13 and Uch37, and one from a reversibly associated protein, Usp14. RNA interference (RNAi) of Rpn11/S13 inhibited(More)
Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the complex etiology of mood disorders, represented mainly by major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The 1996 discovery that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) raised the possibility that impaired inhibition of GSK3 is associated with mood disorders. This is now supported by(More)
OBJECT The present study investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), aquaporin-4 (AQP-4), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability alterations and brain edema formation in a rodent traumatic brain injury (TBI) model. METHODS The brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-425 g) were injured(More)
The goal of this study was to determine if serotonergic activity, which is impaired in depression, regulates the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) in mouse brain in vivo. GSK3beta is inhibited by phosphorylation on serine-9 and is a target of the mood stabilizer lithium. Following administration to mice of d-fenfluramine to(More)
The affective priming effect has mostly been studied using reaction time (RT) measures; however, the neural bases of affective priming are not well established. To understand the neural correlates of cross-domain emotional stimuli presented rapidly, we obtained event-related potential (ERP) measures during an affective priming task using short SOA (stimulus(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is a central component in many critical intracellular signaling mechanisms. These include the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt cell survival pathway, which inhibits GSK-3beta activity. GSK-3beta itself inhibits the activation of several transcription factors, which are important cell survival factors, such as heat(More)