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Chromosome segregation requires assembly of kinetochores on centromeric chromatin to mediate interactions with spindle microtubules and control cell-cycle progression. To elucidate the protein architecture of human kinetochores, we developed a two-color fluorescence light microscopy method that measures average label separation, Delta, at <5 nm accuracy.(More)
Merotelic kinetochore orientation is a misattachment in which a single kinetochore binds microtubules from both spindle poles rather than just one and can produce anaphase lagging chromosomes, a major source of aneuploidy. Merotelic kinetochore orientation occurs frequently in early mitosis, does not block chromosome alignment at the metaphase plate, and is(More)
The spindle checkpoint generates a "wait anaphase" signal at unattached kinetochores to prevent premature anaphase onset. Kinetochore-localized dynein is thought to silence the checkpoint by transporting checkpoint proteins from microtubule-attached kinetochores to spindle poles. Throughout metazoans, dynein recruitment to kinetochores requires the protein(More)
Kinetochores bound to kinetochore microtubules (kMTs) exhibit directional instability in mammalian and other mitotic vertebrate cells, oscillating between poleward (P) and away-from-the-pole (AP) movements. These oscillations are coupled to changes in length of kMTs in a way that maintains a net stretch of the centromere. To understand how sister(More)
Constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) proteins, particularly CENP-C, CENP-T, and the CENP-H/-I complex, mechanically link CENP-A-containing centromeric chromatin within the inner kinetochore to outer kinetochore proteins, such as the Ndc80 complex, that bind kinetochore microtubules. Accuracy of chromosome segregation depends critically upon(More)
Spindle assembly checkpoint proteins have been thought to reside in the peripheral corona region of the kinetochore, distal to microtubule attachment sites at the outer plate. However, recent biochemical evidence indicates that checkpoint proteins are closely linked to the core kinetochore microtubule attachment site comprised of the Knl1-Mis12-Ndc80 (KMN)(More)
Cdt1, a protein critical for replication origin licensing in G1 phase, is degraded during S phase but re-accumulates in G2 phase. We now demonstrate that human Cdt1 has a separable essential mitotic function. Cdt1 localizes to kinetochores during mitosis through interaction with the Hec1 component of the Ndc80 complex. G2-specific depletion of Cdt1 arrests(More)
Duplicated mitotic chromosomes aligned at the metaphase plate maintain dynamic attachments to spindle microtubules via their kinetochores, and multiple motor and nonmotor proteins cooperate to regulate their behavior. Depending on the system, sister chromatids may display either of two distinct behaviors, namely (1) the presence or (2) the absence of(More)
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