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The continuous increase in energy consumption by cellular networks requires rethinking their energy efficiency. Current research indicates that one third of operating energy could be saved by reducing the transmission power of base stations. However, this approach requires the introduction of a range of additional equipment containing more embodied energy -(More)
In this paper, we present an interference model for cognitive radio (CR) networks employing power control, contention control or hybrid power/contention control schemes. For the first case, a power control scheme is proposed to govern the transmission power of a CR node. For the second one, a contention control scheme at the media access control (MAC)(More)
5G networks are expected to achieve gigabit-level throughput in future cellular networks. However, it is a great challenge to treat 5G wireless backhaul traffic in an effective way. In this article, we analyze the wireless backhaul traffic in two typical network architectures adopting small cell and millimeter wave communication technologies. Furthermore,(More)
In this paper, the energy efficiency of multi-input single-output and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MISO-OFDM) communication systems with power and capacity constraints is investigated. By formulating the power allocation problem of MISO-OFDM communication systems, the minimum subchannel transmission power is analyzed with power and capacity(More)
Apelin is a peptide ligand for an orphan G-protein coupled receptor (APJ receptor) and serves as a critical gradient for migration of mesodermal cells fated to contribute to the myocardial lineage. The present study was designed to establish a robust cardiac differentiation protocol, specifically, to evaluate the effect of apelin on directed differentiation(More)
Characterization and modeling of co-channel interference is critical for the design and performance evaluation of realistic multi-cell cellular networks. In this paper, based on alpha stable processes, an analytical co-channel interference model is proposed for multi-cell multiple-input multi-output (MIMO) cellular networks. The impact of different channel(More)
In this paper, we present an interference model for cognitive radio (CR) networks employing power control or contention control scheme. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the interference received at a primary receiver from a CR network are derived for two cases. For the first case, a power control scheme is proposed to govern the(More)
In this paper, the spatial modulation (SM) technique is employed at the source and relay nodes in a full-duplex twoway relay channel (FD-TWRC) to support spectral-efficient bidirectional communications while guaranteeing a low cost implementation. Maximum likelihood (ML) detectors are employed at each node that is subject to an intrinsic self-loop(More)