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Logistic regression (LR), discriminant analysis (DA), and neural networks (NN) were used to predict ordered and disordered regions in proteins. Training data were from a set of non-redundant X-ray crystal structures, with the data being partitioned into N-terminal, C-terminal and internal (I) regions. The DA and LR methods gave almost identical 5-cross(More)
BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
UNLABELLED This study determined immune activities in the brain of ASD patients and matched normal subjects by examining cytokines in the brain tissue. Our results showed that proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and GM-CSF), Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and chemokine (IL-8) were significantly increased in the brains of ASD patients compared with the(More)
Interactions between tumorigenic cells and their surrounding microenvironment are critical for tumor progression yet remain incompletely understood. Germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder characterized by complex tumors called neurofibromas. Genetic studies indicate that biallelic(More)
The ability to precisely engineer plant genomes offers much potential for advancing basic and applied plant biology. Here, we describe methods for the targeted modification of plant genomes using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Methods were optimized using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts and TALENs targeting the(More)
Neoplasms are thought to progress to cancer through genetic instability generating cellular diversity and clonal expansions driven by selection for mutations in cancer genes. Despite advances in the study of molecular biology of cancer genes, relatively little is known about evolutionary mechanisms that drive neoplastic progression. It is unknown, for(More)
We report here an efficient method for targeted mutagenesis of Arabidopsis genes through regulated expression of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs)-enzymes engineered to create DNA double-strand breaks at specific target loci. ZFNs recognizing the Arabidopsis ADH1 and TT4 genes were made by Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN)-a publicly available,(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms underlying heart failure induced by adriamycin are very complicated and still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autophagy was involved in the progression of heart failure induced by adriamycin, so that we can develop a novel treatment strategy for heart failure. METHODS 3-methyladenine (3MA), a specific(More)
Biofilms exist in a variety of habitats that are routinely or periodically not saturated with water, and residents must integrate cues on water abundance (matric stress) or osmolarity (solute stress) into lifestyle strategies. Here we examine this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which alginate production by Pseudomonas putida strain mt-2 and by other(More)
The prion protein (PrP) is central to the prion diseases, although a role in other neurodegenerative diseases has been postulated. A common polymorphism (Met or Val) at codon 129 of the PrP gene (PRNP) features prominently in the risk and phenotype, of prion disease, and an abnormality in its distribution frequency may signal a role for PrP in other(More)