Xiaohong Guo

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This paper describes a significant biotechnological advancement by creating a minimalist serum-free defined system to co-culture rat mammalian nerve and muscle cells in order to form functional neuromuscular junctions. To date, all the known in vitro nerve and muscle co-culture models use serum containing media; and while functional neuromuscular junctions(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is the most potent non-cholinergic neurotransmitter to stimulate catecholamine secretion from rat chromaffin cells; however, the mechanism of action is not clear. We used amperometric detection of exocytosis and indo-1 monitoring of [Ca2+]i to identify PACAP actions in cultured chromaffin cells.(More)
1. Rat adrenal medulla is stimulated by cholinergic and peptidergic transmitters released from splanchnic nerves. The peptidergic transmitter has been identified as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its contribution in comparison to that of acetylcholine (ACh) is more prominent at low neuronal activity. The purpose of this study is to determine if(More)
Secretion of catecholamines from chromaffin cells is mediated by cholinergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters. The cholinergic transmitter acetylcholine activates both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors to trigger catecholamine secretion in rat adrenal medulla. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been identified as the peptidergic transmitter in(More)
We used cultured rat chromaffin cells to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ entry but not release from internal stores is utilized for exocytosis. Two protocols were used to identify internal versus external Ca2+ sources: (a) Ca2+ surrounding single cells was transiently displaced by applying agonist with or without Ca2+ from an ejection pipette. (b)(More)
We show here that 2'-deoxyadenosine (2'-dAdo) but not adenosine was toxic to chromaffin cells of 3-4-week-old rat adrenal glands. More than 75% of the cells plated in culture gradually died over a 3-day period in the presence of 100 microM 2'-dAdo plus 3 microM deoxycoformycin (DCF). Morphological observations together with bisbenzimide staining and(More)
Opioid analgesics are the standard therapeutic agents for the treatment of pain, but their prolonged use is limited because of the development of tolerance and dependence. Recently, we reported the development of a mu-opioid receptor knock-in (KI) mouse in which the mu-opioid receptor was replaced by a mutant receptor (S196A) using a homologous(More)
Based on the in vitro ability of opioid antagonists to activate a mu-opioid receptor mutant, S196A, we reasoned that when expressed in the appropriate sites in vivo, this mutant receptor could be used to elicit the analgesic effects of the opioids without the accompanying side effects, such as tolerance and dependence. To test this hypothesis, we introduced(More)
Asthma is a common allergic disorder involving a complex interplay among multiple genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies identified genetic variants of human GAB1 as a novel asthma susceptibility factor. However, the functions of Gab1 in lung remain largely unexplored. In this study, we first observed an elevation of Gab1 level in peripheral(More)
GRB2-associated-binding protein 1 (Gab1) belongs to Gab adaptor family, which integrates multiple signals in response to the epithelial growth factors. Recent genetic studies identified genetic variants of human Gab1 gene as potential risk factors of asthmatic inflammation. However, the functions of Gab1 in lungs remain largely unknown. Alveolar type-II(More)