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The basal ganglia is a key structure for procedural learning. To examine in what aspects of procedural learning the basal ganglia participate, we recorded from striatal neurons (phasically active neurons) in monkeys while the animals were performing a sequential button press task (the 2×5 task) and compared the neuronal activity between two conditions: (1)(More)
The neural substrate of sequence learning is well known. However, we lack a clear understanding of the detailed functional properties of many of the areas involved. The reason for this discrepancy lies, in part, in the fact that two types of processes, implicit and explicit, subserve motor sequence learning, and these often interact with each other. The(More)
Complex learned motor sequences can be composed of a combination of a small number of elementary actions. To investigate how the brain represents such sequences, we devised an oculomotor sequence task in which the monkey had to choose the target solely by the sequential context, not by the current stimulus combination. We found that many neurons in the(More)
 The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and structure of procedural memory. We have previously studied the process of learning sequential behavioral procedures using monkeys. The monkey’s task was to press five consecutive pairs of buttons (indicated by illumination) in the correct order for every pair, which he had to find by(More)
To investigate the somatotopic organization of the cerebellum, we analysed multisynaptic inputs to the primary motor cortex (MI) using retrograde transneuronal transport of rabies virus. At 3 days after rabies injections into proximal forelimb, distal forelimb and hindlimb representations of the macaque MI, second-order neurons via the thalamus were labeled(More)
This paper focuses on the problem of how to allow a source to send a message without revealing its physical location and proposes an anti-localization routing protocol, ALAR, to achieve anonymous delivery in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks. The objectives of ALAR are to minimize the probability of a data source being localized and to maximize the(More)
Inflammatory responses in the CNS mediated by activated glial cells play an important role in host-defense but are also involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that has cardioprotective, anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the capacity of resveratrol to protect(More)
Skin and mucous membranes come in contact with external environment and protect tissues from infections by producing antimicrobial peptides. We report that human peptidoglycan recognition proteins 3 and 4 (PGLYRP3 and PGLYRP4) are secreted as 89-115-kDa disulfide-linked homo- and heterodimers and are bactericidal against several pathogenic and nonpathogenic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Our aim was to determine whether the intestinotrophic effects of GLP-2 are mediated by acute up-regulation of intestinal substrate utilization in TPN-fed piglets. METHODS Twenty-four 12-day-old pigs, fitted with a portal flow probe and carotid, jugular and portal catheters, were fed by TPN for 7 days. On day 8, a group of pigs (n = 8)(More)