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Let H be a hexagonal system. The Z-transformation graph Z(H) is the graph where the vertices are the perfect matchings of H and where two perfect matchings are joined by an edge provided their symmetric difference is a hexagon of H (Z. Fu-ji et al., 1988). In this paper we prove that Z(H) has a Hamilton path if H is a catacondensed hexagonal system. A(More)
The polyketide natural product Leptomycin B inhibits nuclear export mediated by the karyopherin protein chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Here, we present 1.8- to 2.0-Å-resolution crystal structures of CRM1 bound to Leptomycin B and related inhibitors Anguinomycin A and Ratjadone A. Structural and complementary chemical analyses reveal an unexpected(More)
Growth of prostate cancer cells is dependent upon androgen stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR). Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the most potent androgen, is usually synthesized in the prostate from testosterone secreted by the testis. Following chemical or surgical castration, prostate cancers usually shrink owing to testosterone deprivation. However,(More)
BACKGROUND When organisms experience environmental change, how does their metabolic network reset and adapt to the new condition? Methylobacterium extorquens is a bacterium capable of growth on both multi- and single-carbon compounds. These different modes of growth utilize dramatically different central metabolic pathways with limited pathway overlap. (More)
We consider construction of a set of smaller 4 x 4 matrices to represent DNA primary sequences which are based on enumeration of all 64 triplets of nucleic acids bases. The leading eigenvalue from the constructed matrices has been selected as an invariant for construction of a vector to characterize DNA. Additional invariants considered of the derived(More)
A connected graph G is said to be k-cycle resonant if, for 1 6 t 6 k, any t disjoint cycles in G are mutually resonant, that is, there is a perfect matching M of G such that each of the t cycles is an M-alternating cycle. The concept of k-cycle resonant graphs was introduced by the present authors in 1994. Some necessary and suucient conditions for a graph(More)
Isoketals (IsoKs) are gamma-ketoaldehydes formed via the isoprostane pathway of arachidonic acid peroxidation and are among the most reactive by-products of lipid peroxidation. IsoKs selectively adduct to protein lysine residues and are highly cytotoxic, but the targets and molecular events involved in IsoK-induced cell death are poorly defined. Our(More)