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Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important regulators for plant growth and development. BRs signal to control the activities of the BES1 and BZR1 family transcription factors. The transcriptional network through which BES1 and BZR regulate large number of target genes is mostly unknown. By combining chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with Arabidopsis tiling(More)
Cell elongation in plants is controlled by environmental cues such as light and internal growth regulators including plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs). In this study, we found that 3 related receptor-like kinases (RLKs), HERCULES1, THESEUS1, and FERONIA, are transcriptionally induced by BRs and are down-regulated in the loss-of-function BR(More)
The mammalian intestine is home to ~100 trillion bacteria that perform important metabolic functions for their hosts. The proximity of vast numbers of bacteria to host intestinal tissues raises the question of how symbiotic host-bacterial relationships are maintained without eliciting potentially harmful immune responses. Here, we show that RegIIIγ, a(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) belongs to the family of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) and is a ligand-activated transcription factor. There are four mRNAs, PPAR-gamma1, PPAR-gamma2, PPAR-gamma3 and PPAR-gamma4, which encode two proteins, PPAR-gamma1and PPAR-gamma2. PPAR-gamma consists of five or six structural regions (A-F)(More)
Circadian clocks regulate numerous physiological processes that vary across the day-night (diurnal) cycle, but if and how the circadian clock regulates the adaptive immune system is mostly unclear. Interleukin-17-producing CD4(+) T helper (T(H)17) cells are proinflammatory immune cells that protect against bacterial and fungal infections at mucosal(More)
Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are of great importance for plant growth and development. BRs signal through a cell surface receptor kinase, BRI1, and a GSK3-like kinase, BIN2, to regulate the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which directly bind to target gene promoters to activate or repress gene expression and mediate BR(More)
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are recently identified lymphocytes that limit infection and promote tissue repair at mucosal surfaces. However, the pathways underlying ILC development remain unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor NFIL3 directs the development of a committed bone marrow precursor that differentiates into all known ILC lineages.(More)
Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been a focus of recent study on tumor-mediated immune suppression. However, its role in Th17 cell differentiation and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis) has not been determined. We show in this study that development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice is(More)
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors thousands of bacterial species that include symbionts as well as potential pathogens. The immune responses that limit access of these bacteria to underlying tissue remain poorly defined. Here we show that γδ intraepithelial lymphocytes (γδ IEL) of the small intestine produce innate antimicrobial factors in(More)